Mathis on Graphene? Any hints?

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Re: Mathis on Graphene? Any hints?

Post by Cr6 on Mon Apr 16, 2018 11:45 pm

Vertical graphene flakes form a protective surface that makes it impossible for bacteria to attach. Instead, bacteria are sliced apart by the sharp graphene flakes and killed. Human cells volume is typically 15,000 times larger. So, what constitutes a deadly knife attack for a bacterium, is therefore only a tiny scratch for a human cell. Coating implants with a layer of graphene flakes can therefore help protect the patient against infection, eliminate the need for antibiotic treatment, and reduce the risk of implant rejection. The osseointegration - the process by which the bone structure grows to attach the implant -- is not disturbed. In fact, the graphene has been shown to benefit the bone cells. Credit: Yen Strandqvist/Chalmers University of Technology

A tiny layer of graphene flakes on a surface kills bacteria, stopping infections during procedures such as implant surgery. This is the finding of new research from Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, recently published in Advanced Materials Interfaces.

Operations for surgical implants, such as hip and knee replacements or dental implants, have increased in recent years. However, in such procedures, there is always a risk of bacterial infection. In the worst-case scenario, this can prevent the implant from attaching to the skeleton, meaning it must be removed.

Bacteria travel in fluids such as blood, seeking to attach to a suitable surface. Once in place, they start to grow and propagate, forming a protective layer known as a biofilm. A research team at Chalmers has now shown that a layer of vertical graphene flakes forms a protective surface that makes it impossible for bacteria to attach. Instead, bacteria are sliced apart by the sharp graphene flakes and killed. Coating implants with a layer of graphene flakes can therefore protect the patient against infection, eliminate the need for antibiotic treatment, and reduce the risk of implant rejection. The osseointegration—the process by which the bone structure grows to attach the implant—is not disturbed. In fact, the graphene has been shown to benefit the bone cells.

Chalmers University is a leader in the area of graphene research, but the biological applications did not begin to materialise until a few years ago. The researchers saw conflicting results in earlier studies. Some showed that graphene damaged the bacteria, others that they were not affected.
Spikes of graphene can kill bacteria on implants
The vertical flakes of graphene are not a new invention. But the Chalmers research teams are the first to use vertical graphene to kill bacteria. The next step will be to test the graphene flakes further, by coating implant surfaces and studying the effect on animal cells. Credit: Johan Bodell/Chalmers University of Technology

"We discovered that the key parameter is to orient the graphene vertically. If it is horizontal, the bacteria are not harmed," says Ivan Mijakovic, Professor at the Department of Biology and Biological Engineering.

The sharp flakes do not damage human cells because a bacterium is one micrometer in diameter, while a human cell is 25 micrometers. What constitutes a deadly knife attack for a bacterium is therefore only a tiny scratch for a human cell.

"Graphene has high potential for health applications. But more research is needed before we can claim it is entirely safe. Among other things, we know that graphene does not degrade easily," says Jie Sun, associate professor at the Department of Micro Technology and Nanoscience.

https://phys.org/news/2018-04-spikes-graphene-bacteria-implants.html#nRlv


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Re: Mathis on Graphene? Any hints?

Post by Nevyn on Wed Apr 18, 2018 8:50 pm

Nevyn wrote:The higher elements have not been added to AV because they are very large and the possible changes from one element in the table to the next (i.e. how to add the next proton) are difficult to choose between. If anyone finds evidence for these elements bonding to other elements, hopefully known ones, then I might be able to create a few more.

Ask, and ye shall receive!

Miles has a new paper with more details on the higher elements that I am missing. Is he reading our discussions? Maybe, maybe not. I was confused on these higher elements mainly because of Uranium, which Miles has diagrammed as a nuclear bond between 2 atoms rather than a molecular bond to create a molecule. He also explicitly states that a nuclear bond is close and tight where-as a molecular bond is further away and a looser bond. I always remembered reading that somewhere in his papers but couldn't find the reference when I looked. I will have to find a way to incorporate that into my molecular models. If we assume that a nuclear bond pushes the proton stacks together such that they create a complete stack, which is how I have shown molecular bonds up to this point, then the molecular bond must only push the 2 stacks about half way together. The protons will still need to rearrange to fit, bit they are still a bit loose. This removes the possibility for the proton stack to have a through-charge that would hold them together. The bond is only caused by the nuclear charge channels coming out of and going into the atoms, which seems very weak to me. I liked having the stacks use their through-charge to hold the bond in place.

This is very timely for me as I have been thinking about molecules and how to build them in an app. More along the lines of how to build a UI to do it, but the more information I have the better. I will incorporate this into the molecule positioning and rendering systems and will look into updating Atomic Viewer with these new models. I don't think that will be easy though. The nuclear models in AV are setup with a precise structure that doesn't use these types of concepts. I may need to introduce a new type of atom to handle these.

Does anyone have a good name to call these special atoms? Molatom (molecular-atom)? Supatom (super-atom)? Atomecule?
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Re: Mathis on Graphene? Any hints?

Post by Jared Magneson on Fri Apr 20, 2018 3:33 pm

Looking up synonyms for both atom and molecule, hoping to find a Latin or Greek-rooted inspiration, I found:

smidgen
speck
iota
modicum
mote
morsel
tittle
jot


Not terribly helpful. I rather like Supatom but if spoken aloud, it sounds rather urban.

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Re: Mathis on Graphene? Any hints?

Post by Nevyn on Fri Apr 20, 2018 6:30 pm

Agreed. I was thinking about Diotom where dio is Greek for 2 and tom comes from atom, also Greek. It seems a bit too close to diatom which is very close to the same concept but in a molecular setting. It wouldn't be so bad in text but they are way too close in speech.

Kontatoma is almost a direct translation of 'close atoms' in Greek - Konta atoma. A bit long though.

May be irrelevant anyway. I've had a look through the code and I am hoping that I can make the necessary changes within the Atom class itself, rather than introduce another type. There are some complications with that but I think I can push through them.
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Re: Mathis on Graphene? Any hints?

Post by Jared Magneson on Fri Apr 20, 2018 10:26 pm

So from a physical standpoint, how does this work? Are molecular atoms merely a short distance further apart than Kontatoms? I think we're hitting new ground here, with that latest paper, but I've often had these questions about Uranium too since he first diagrammed it.

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Re: Mathis on Graphene? Any hints?

Post by Nevyn on Sat Apr 21, 2018 1:11 am

That is the million dollar question at the moment. Just how far apart are these bonds and how do we determine that distance? Let's look at how these bonds alter the proton stacks involved.

Broadly speaking, there are 3 possibilities when joining 2 atoms in a nuclear bond:
1) 1 atom has a hook proton stack and the other has no hook stack (such as a noble element);
2) both atoms have hook stacks;
3) neither atom has a hook stack and the joining stack comes from the field.

Case 1) is fairly straight forward and the single hook stack becomes a shared hook stack with the other atom. That is what Miles has been using so far or at least hasn't gone into much detail at this level. He also may be thinking of case 3).

Case 2) is more complicated and may not even be allowed. It involves moving the existing stacks apart to accommodate each other. Molecular bonds do this, or may, but I'm not sure if it is possible for a nuclear bond. I am going to allow it until convinced otherwise.

Case 3) is probably the more likely scenario and is certainly easier to imagine. We start with noble elements, force them together in a field rich in proton stacks of the size we want to bond them. The carousel levels could also fill up with the same stacks. It may be possible to control this. Let's look a little deeper to see how that works.

We start with a container of, say, Krypton and Xenon.
Apply an electric field to align the atoms or make use of the Earth's charge field to do so.
Introduce H, He, Be, Li, etc, whichever is the right sized stack for your purposes.
Increase electric field to force atoms together.

That gives us the axial (north/south) structure. We can remove the electric field and they should stay fairly stable in a protected or low charge environment. Now we can create the carousel levels, if we want to.

Introduce the desired proton stacks (H, He, etc).
Align stacks to the north/south axis with an electric field.
Apply electric field in a radial pattern in the plane perpendicular to the north/south axis. From outside to inside, forcing the stacks into the carousel positions. This may break the original structure if the electric field is too strong because those central bonds we created are not well protected. This is why such elements are unstable. It may required very precise fields that are targeted at the carousel levels but that seems too difficult.

I am imagining a series of electric fields applied in sequence. Align Z, push, align XY, push, etc, repeated until the desired yield is achieved. Various atoms are added at certain stages to prime the field with the required entities. That actually seems quite feasible, although I'm not sure about some of those steps. For some strange reason, no-one let's me play with billion dollar machines Crying or Very sad .

But I digress. How do nuclear and molecular bonds differ? If we look at case 2), which is the closest to a molecular bond, then we can ask how far do the hook stacks penetrate each other in each scenario? Nuclear bonds have 100% penetration such that the 2 stacks become 1. Molecular bonds have some separation and I imagine it is close to half way but I don't have anything to back that up, it just seems like a nice number. It doesn't really matter too much what the exact value is, any separation means that we are not dealing with a normal proton stack because it does not have an aligned central path for through-charge to flow.

I think this is important because that through-charge is like a locking pin for the stack. It keeps the protons aligned in order to call it a stack. If the 2 stacks penetrate deeper than 50%, then their proton emissions are going to interrupt each others through-charge and they all fall apart. So the 2 stacks must be less than 50% penetration.

50% of what, you may ask? That percentage is applied to the distance from a proton to a point away from that proton that its emission density drops below some value. It is the distance that we could say: within that distance is a proton and outside of that distance is the ambient field. It can be thought of as the size of a proton, but not the size of the proton's stacked spin radius. It includes the protons charge field.

I do not normally define a protons size as this value since I am usually thinking about stacked spins and so I want to use the stacked spin radius for that size, but in this case, where we are using the proton as a charged entity, we can include some of its charge field. I hope that is clear, for it is a bit confusing. I would call the protons' stacked spin size its Quantum Radius and the size I am using here I would call its Charged Radius.

Moving on...

Does everyone agree that there is at least some penetration in the molecular bond? Is it possible to have no penetration? That feels a bit weird to me as there would be two proton stacks emitting directly at each other and the only thing bonding them together would be the atoms through-charge streams.

It is certainly possible to have molecular bonds that do not penetrate and you can look at the Hydrocarbons that I have modeled in the Chemistry section to see some of them. They are not the same type of bond though, as they have 1 stack emitting into the input of another stack, not 2 stacks emitting at each other.
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Re: Mathis on Graphene? Any hints?

Post by Cr6 on Sat Apr 21, 2018 4:42 am

Interesting comment Nevyn.
I'd like to see too "Molecular bonding" via Left/Right spins in a sense. What's incoming/outgoing with charge/photons that can be shared via protons and unbalanced hooks? What really are the "basics" to allow joining/alignment into a stable mass (proton-wise/stacked photon spin-wise/alpha-wise-"hook" wise)? Maybe this question is too simple but these are perspectives I'm trying to reconcile in the model..."bonding" references these perspectives.

Like is "doping" just a form of charge flow around larger frozen "crystal" structures with certain atoms positioned in edge positions that optimize with the large "crystal" structure. Do super-cold atoms create a 4th path for bonding via "hardened crystals"... that is path channeling outside of (non-alpha) "blocks" -- like whiskey poured on  blocks of ice?  Thinking of Noble gases primarily (Xe) as you mentioned.

A new item on salt below as well. It apparently can "crystallize" structures.

Some more articles on graphene (per Jared's mentioning SiGe):
------

Researchers devise a way to a create graphene transistor
July 18, 2012 by Bob Yirka, Phys.org report
Researchers devise a way to a create graphene transistor
(https://phys.org/news/2012-07-graphene-transistor.html   ... more at link)

Two different epitaxial graphene materials combined to a monolithic transistor. Image from Nature Communications 3, Article number: 957 doi:10.1038/ncomms1955

(Phys.org) -- Researchers in Germany appear to have found a way to create a monolithic (integrated) graphene transistor, using a lithographic process applied to silicon carbide, a breakthrough that could lead to computers based on graphene chips, rather than those that use silicon. This is significant because researchers are beginning to see the light at the end of the tunnel regarding the degree to which silicon can be used to make smaller and smaller chips. Using graphene wouldn’t necessarily allow for smaller chips, but because it conducts electricity faster, it would allow for faster chips without having to downsize. The German researchers working with another group from Sweden, describe the new process in their paper published in the journal Nature Communications.

By now everyone has heard that graphene is expected to take the world by storm over the next few years as ways are found to make use of its amazing properties (it’s just one carbon atom thick and is the fastest conductor ever found). The problem of course is in trying to work with such a thin material; it’s hard to connect to other metals such as electrodes and breaks easily. Another problem is that it’s not a natural semiconductor, which is a material that is conductive in one state and to not conductive in another. Semiconductors are what allow computers to store “1s” and “0s”. Thus, to use graphene in a computer, a way needs to be found to allow it to behave as a semiconductor so that transistors can be fashioned. That way appears to have now been found.

The new research is based on earlier research that found that if the crystal, silicon carbide is baked just right, the silicon atoms on its surface are pushed out of it leaving just a single layer of carbon, i.e. graphene. The result is a material that suggests a transistor is possible due to the graphene layer remaining affixed to more layers of silicon carbide (which is a semiconductor) below it. To make a transistor, the team used a high energy beam of charged atoms to etch channels into the material to create the parts needed for a transistor to run; namely, gates, drains and sources. They also found that using oxygen gas during the etching of the middle channel converted it from a contact into a gate. The end result is a fully functioning transistor.


------------


Thin layer of germanium may replace silicon in semiconductors

April 10, 2013 by Pam Frost Gorder, The Ohio State University

Thin layer of germanium may replace silicon in semiconductors
(https://phys.org/news/2013-04-thin-layer-germanium-silicon-semiconductors.html ... more at link)

The element germanium in its natural state. Researchers at The Ohio State University have developed a technique for making one-atom-thick sheets of germanium for eventual use in electronics. Credit: Joshua Goldberger, The Ohio State University

(Phys.org) —The same material that formed the first primitive transistors more than 60 years ago can be modified in a new way to advance future electronics, according to a new study.

Chemists at The Ohio State University have developed the technology for making a one-atom-thick sheet of germanium, and found that it conducts electrons more than ten times faster than silicon and five times faster than conventional germanium.

The material's structure is closely related to that of graphene—a much-touted two-dimensional material comprised of single layers of carbon atoms. As such, graphene shows unique properties compared to its more common multilayered counterpart, graphite. Graphene has yet to be used commercially, but experts have suggested that it could one day form faster computer chips, and maybe even function as a superconductor, so many labs are working to develop it.

Joshua Goldberger, assistant professor of chemistry at Ohio State, decided to take a different direction and focus on more traditional materials.

"Most people think of graphene as the electronic material of the future," Goldberger said. "But silicon and germanium are still the materials of the present. Sixty years' worth of brainpower has gone into developing techniques to make chips out of them. So we've been searching for unique forms of silicon and germanium with advantageous properties, to get the benefits of a new material but with less cost and using existing technology."

In a paper published online in the journal ACS Nano, he and his colleagues describe how they were able to create a stable, single layer of germanium atoms. In this form, the crystalline material is called germanane.

Researchers have tried to create germanane before. This is the first time anyone has succeeded at growing sufficient quantities of it to measure the material's properties in detail, and demonstrate that it is stable when exposed to air and water.

In nature, germanium tends to form multilayered crystals in which each atomic layer is bonded together; the single-atom layer is normally unstable. To get around this problem, Goldberger's team created multi-layered germanium crystals with calcium atoms wedged between the layers. Then they dissolved away the calcium with water, and plugged the empty chemical bonds that were left behind with hydrogen. The result: they were able to peel off individual layers of germanane.

Studded with hydrogen atoms, germanane is even more chemically stable than traditional silicon. It won't oxidize in air and water, as silicon does. That makes germanane easy to work with using conventional chip manufacturing techniques.

The primary thing that makes germanane desirable for optoelectronics is that it has what scientists call a "direct band gap," meaning that light is easily absorbed or emitted. Materials such as conventional silicon and germanium have indirect band gaps, meaning that it is much more difficult for the material to absorb or emit light.

"When you try to use a material with an indirect band gap on a solar cell, you have to make it pretty thick if you want enough energy to pass through it to be useful. A material with a direct band gap can do the same job with a piece of material 100 times thinner," Goldberger said.

The first-ever transistors were crafted from germanium in the late 1940s, and they were about the size of a thumbnail. Though transistors have grown microscopic since then—with millions of them packed into every computer chip—germanium still holds potential to advance electronics, the study showed.

According to the researchers' calculations, electrons can move through germanane ten times faster through silicon, and five times faster than through conventional germanium. The speed measurement is called electron mobility.

With its high mobility, germanane could thus carry the increased load in future high-powered computer chips.

---------

In the CVD process, atoms excited by temperatures—in this case between 600 and 850 degrees Celsius (1,112 and 1,562 degrees Fahrenheit)—form a gas and ultimately settle on a substrate, linking to atoms of complementary chemistry to form monolayer crystals.
A molecular dynamics simulation by Rice University scientists shows a layer of salt and molybdenum oxide mixing together to form molybdenum oxychloride. The atoms are oxygen (red), sodium (yellow), chlorine (green) and molybdenum (purple). Credit: Yakobson Group

Researchers already suspected salt could facilitate the process, Yakobson said. Liu came to him to request a molecular model analysis to learn why salt made it easier to melt metals with chalcogens and get them to react. That would help them learn if it might work within the broader palette of the periodic table.

"They did impressively broad work to make a lot of new materials and to characterize each of them comprehensively," Yakobson said. "From our theoretical perspective, the novelty in this study is that we now have a better understanding of why adding plain salt lowers the melting point for these metal-oxides and especially reduces the energy barriers of the intermediates on the way to transforming them into chalcogenides."

Whether in the form of common table salt (sodium chloride) or more exotic compounds like potassium iodide, salt was found to allow chemical reactions by lowering the energetic barrier that otherwise prevents molecules from interacting at anything less than ultrahigh temperatures, Yakobson said.

"I call it a 'salt assault,'" he said. "This is important for synthesis. First, when you try to combine solid particles, no matter how small they are, they still have limited contact with each other. But if you melt them, with salt's help, you get a lot of contact on the molecular level.

http://milesmathis.forumotion.com/t459-salt-a-dash-of-salt-can-simplify-the-creation-of-two-dimensional-materials
----------

Hybrid superconductor–semiconductor devices made from self-assembled SiGe nanocrystals on silicon

   G. Katsaros1, P. Spathis1, M. Stoffel2, F. Fournel3, M. Mongillo1, V. Bouchiat4, F. Lefloch1, A. Rastelli2, O. G. Schmidt2 & S. De Franceschi1

   Nature Nanotechnology volume 5, pages 458–464 (2010)

Abstract


The epitaxial growth of germanium on silicon leads to the self-assembly of SiGe nanocrystals by a process that allows the size, composition and position of the nanocrystals to be controlled. This level of control, combined with an inherent compatibility with silicon technology, could prove useful in nanoelectronic applications. Here, we report the confinement of holes in quantum-dot devices made by directly contacting individual SiGe nanocrystals with aluminium electrodes, and the production of hybrid superconductor–semiconductor devices, such as resonant supercurrent transistors, when the quantum dot is strongly coupled to the electrodes. Charge transport measurements on weakly coupled quantum dots reveal discrete energy spectra, with the confined hole states displaying anisotropic gyromagnetic factors and strong spin–orbit coupling with pronounced dependences on gate voltage and magnetic field.

https://www.nature.com/articles/nnano.2010.84?message-global=remove


Last edited by Cr6 on Mon Apr 23, 2018 12:11 am; edited 1 time in total (Reason for editing : corrected typo)

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Re: Mathis on Graphene? Any hints?

Post by Nevyn on Sat Apr 21, 2018 9:24 am

Cr6 wrote:
I'd like to see too "Molecular bonding" via Left/Right spins in a sense. What's incoming/outgoing with charge/photons that can be shared via protons and unbalanced hooks? What really are the "basics" to allow joining/alignment into a stable mass (proton-wise/stacked photon spin-wise/alpha-wise-"hook" wise)? Maybe this question is too simple but these are perspectives I'm trying to reconcile in the model..."bonding" references these perspectives.

As far as I can tell, the actual bonds are caused by the charge channels of the atoms, not the emission of the protons that make those atoms. In most cases, where the atoms bond along the north/south axis, it is the through-charge of each atom that aligns allowing a longer path. That path represents a direct route for charge photons but how that creates a bond I'm not really sure.

The hook stacks are located where these channels enter/exit the nucleus. They do provide a source of charge for these channels and they can also deplete some of the charge as their own emission. You can look at the hook stacks as an indication of how well fed the atom already is, before any other atom might bond with it. If the core of the atom contains stacks with 6 protons each, then they can pass a lot of charge through. If the hook stack is only 1 proton, then it is only being fed 1/6th of the charge that it could handle, 2 protons and it has 1/3rd. The core of the atom does not attract that charge, but it will accept it if supplied.

That's why the hooks are important. They essentially set the base charge capability at that point in the nucleus. For charge coming in at that location they act as an intake fan, pushing some of the charge that it receives down into the nucleus. When that charge reaches the other side of the nucleus it encounters another hook stack which will take some of it as its own emission field and allow most to pass through as a coherent stream. That is a charge channel of the atom. Each hook stack acts as both intake and exhaust, depending on which way the charge is coming from, but on the exhaust side it also allows most of it through because the charge is a more focused stream than what arrives from outside of the nucleus which is random ambient field charge.

Why do the nuclei come together to bond? I think this is caused by the ambient field pushing from all directions. When two atoms are near each other they will each shield the other from a certain amount of that ambient field. This causes less force from the direction of the other atom and therefore they will move together. Some may try to use gravity here but I don't find it necessary. It may play a part but the field already contains enough forces to do it.

Once they are close and aligned, the charge channels of each atom will work together. This results is less repulsion since the charge is being channeled, not collided with or redirected. An analogy for this is a hose and a metal plate. Given enough pressure in the hose, the metal plate can be pushed away from the hose. However, if there is a hole in the middle of the plate then some water goes straight through and does not provide any force on the plate. If we make the hole large enough to take all of the water from the hose, then we are only left with outside forces which are pushing the two together.

Cr6 wrote:
Like is "doping" just a form of a charge flow around larger frozen "crystal" structures with certain atoms positioned in edge positions that optimize with the large "crystal" structure. Does a super-cold atoms create a 4th path for bonding via "hardened crystals"...path channeling outside of "blocks" like whiskey poured on  blocks of ice?  Thinking of Noble gases primarily (Xe) as you mentioned.

I think doping is just adding certain atoms that provide some desired property. They will fit into the molecule in such a way that they enhance it. Maybe providing more charge channeling capability, maybe better conduction or maybe it smooths the internal charge pulses of otherwise incompatible atoms. I'm not sure how crystals fit into all of this yet. They are an interesting topic but I think I need to understand basic bonds before I can have any confidence in creating theory for them. Graphene and other so-called 2D molecules are a good stepping stone into the 3D structure of a crystal. If we can figure out these bonds then I think we will be able to model graphene and nano-tubes, etc.
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Re: Mathis on Graphene? Any hints?

Post by LongtimeAirman on Sat Apr 21, 2018 1:02 pm

.
Nevyn, thanks for the extensive detailed descriptions, I can now properly appreciate how the Curium paper offers many additional atomic possibilities. That thread has been robbed, but you did refer to this thread from that one.

Given your request for opinions, I like your second idea – there are no hook stack penetrations. A partial penetration of two hook stacks would interfere with the proton separations within each atom’s stack, breaking the integrity of each of those pole hook stacks before a bond can form – no halfway positions allowed(?). Spins need to be taken into consideration, here alphas complicate things, how can a proton penetrate an alpha? Any penetrations would leave at least leave the alphas intact, I don't see how penetrations can work. 1) Molecular bond – no interpenetration of hook stacks, just two stacked hook stacks where each stack adjusts slightly one way or the other, preventing the two from completely merging their hook charge currents. Given enough ambient energy the two atoms will separate at that bond. 2) Nuclear bond – the hook stack bond is indivisible.
.

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Re: Mathis on Graphene? Any hints?

Post by Jared Magneson on Sat Apr 21, 2018 5:06 pm

I'm having a hard time visualizing "hook stacks" in this context. I mean, visualizing the various atoms is easy (thanks to your Atomic Viewer and Periodic Table, which I use daily!) but I don't quite grasp the concept of the "hook" here. Going to study it more, but maybe you could draw up something quick and simple, Nevyn? It doesn't have to be fancy, maybe just Photoshop or MSpaint or something, or even (heaven help us) on paper with one of those pencil thingies?

Perhaps starting small, with say the water bond or something might be helpful?

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Re: Mathis on Graphene? Any hints?

Post by Jared Magneson on Sat Apr 21, 2018 5:07 pm

LongtimeAirman wrote:That thread has been robbed, but you did refer to this thread from that one.

Do you mean my aside about Germanium? We can just delete it if you feel it wasn't helpful or at all relevant... I do try to be relevant, at the very least. Smile

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Re: Mathis on Graphene? Any hints?

Post by Nevyn on Sat Apr 21, 2018 5:39 pm

Yeah, I was almost through that last post when I realised that it was really in the wrong thread. I got a bit side-tracked at times. It's hard not to. I think I should move or copy these posts over to that Cerium thread, or even create a new thread just about bonding.
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Re: Mathis on Graphene? Any hints?

Post by Nevyn on Sat Apr 21, 2018 5:44 pm

Jared, I think your post about Germanium is much more relevant to this thread than my 2 posts above, which are more about bonds. I'd leave them here but my posts were more of a diversion. Still some-what relevant, but also leading in a different direction.

I am going to copy my posts over to the Cerium thread and continue the discussion there.

http://milesmathis.forumotion.com/t455-why-is-curium-the-last-semi-stable-element#3569
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Re: Mathis on Graphene? Any hints?

Post by Jared Magneson on Sat Apr 21, 2018 6:40 pm

In other graphene news:

Graphene sets a new record on squeezing light to one atom

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/04/180420122839.htm

This team of researchers including those from ICFO (Spain), University of Minho (Portugal) and MIT (USA) used stacks of two-dimensional materials, called heterostructures, to build up a new nano-optical device. They took a graphene monolayer (which acts as a semi-metal), and stacked onto it a hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) monolayer (an insulator), and on top of this deposited an array of metallic rods. They used graphene because it can guide light in the form of plasmons, which are oscillations of the electrons, interacting strongly with light.

"At first we were looking for a new way to excite graphene plasmons. On the way, we found that the confinement was stronger than before and the additional losses minimal. So we decided to go to the one atom limit with surprising results," said David Alcaraz Iranzo, the lead author from ICFO.

By sending infra-red light through their devices, the researchers observed how the plasmons propagated in between the metal and the graphene. To reach the smallest space conceivable, they decided to reduce the gap between the metal and graphene as much as possible to see if the confinement of light remained efficient, i.e. without additional energy losses. Strikingly, they saw that even when a monolayer of hBN was used as a spacer, the plasmons were still excited, and could propagate freely while being confined to a channel of just one atom thick. They managed to switch this plasmon propagation on and off, simply by applying an electrical voltage, demonstrating the control of light guided in channels smaller than one nanometer.

This enables new opto-electronic devices that are just one nanometer thick, such as ultra-small optical switches, detectors and sensors. Due to the paradigm shift in optical field confinement, extreme light-matter interactions can now be explored that were not accessible before. The atom-scale toolbox of two-dimensional materials has now also proven applicable for many types of new devices where both light and electrons can be controlled even down to the scale of a nanometer.

Bold emphasis = important, italics = bullshit plasmon silliness?

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Re: Mathis on Graphene? Any hints?

Post by Cr6 on Thu Apr 26, 2018 12:58 am

Looks like 3-D graphene printer spools are available for about $100... might be good for an interesting garage experiment.
Rigging this to a Solar cell and Earth battery might be a good little project.  geek Better yet, maybe form a "Charge Field Consulting Company" with Miles as a principal and put it on the market for optimizing various processes? I mean this only a bit in jest.

Interesting take on using the filament with bitcoin mining?
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http://www.graphene3dlab.com/i/pdf/presentation/presentation.pdf
http://www.blackmagic3d.com/pindex.asp (Price List of Products)
http://www.blackmagic3d.com/Conductive-p/grphn-pla.htm
http://www.graphene3dlab.com/i/pdf/conductivemsds.pdf

Conductive Graphene PLA Filament 100g
http://graphenelab.com/blackmagic3d/Filaments/Conductive_Graphene_Filament_216x279.pdf



Properties

   Volume Resistivity: 0.6 ohm-cm
   Color: Black
   Diameter: 1.75 mm
   Size: 100 grams
   Graphene-enhanced for superior conductivity and improved mechanical properties
   PLA-based

Electrical Conductivity

Our Conductive Graphene PLA Filament offers a volume resistivity of 0.6 ohm-cm. Volume resistivity is the measure of a material’s resistance to electricity within a cubic centimeter of material. In order to determine if the material will work for your project, you will have to keep in mind that the resistivity will change depending upon your print. It is suggested that our filament can be used for the applications below.

High Strength

Conductive Graphene PLA Filament may also be used for applications which require superior strength to ABS and PLA.

Applications
Sensors

Conductive Graphene PLA Filament can be used to create capacitive (touch) sensors used in a wide range of electronics which you interact with on a daily basis; it is an excellent material for designing human interface devices! Capacitive sensing can also be used to measure proximity, position, humidity, fluid levels, and acceleration.

Projects include:

   Gaming controllers
   Digital keyboards
   Trackpads
   Drum Machines
   MIDI controllers

Conductive Traces

Another application of Conductive Graphene PLA Filament is in the creation of electrically conductive circuitry for use in electronics. We love that 3D printing is a push-button process and we aim to keep it that way. Traditionally, 3D printing enthusiasts needed to add circuitry to their creation after it was printed in plastic, using copper wire; by offering a conductive filament, you can print graphene wiring simultaneously with your build process!

Projects include:

   Interfacing computers, Arduino boards, and other components
   Powering LED’s
   Wearable electronics

Note: The electrical resistance of a circuit must be considered in order to successfully use Conductive Graphene PLA Filament in electronics applications; specifically, the filament is designed for low-current applications.

Electromagnetic and Radiofrequency Shielding

The superior conductivity offered with our Conductive Graphene PLA Filament is not only excellent for 3D printed circuitry and sensors – it also means our filament is wholly capable of use in EMI and RF shielding applications critical for use in a range of industries, including:

   Telecommunications
   Hospital equipmentConductive Graphene 3D Printing Filament
   Medical devices
   Enclosures and packaging
   Aerospace and Automotive

EMI/RF shielding is used to block the electromagnetic field and radio frequency electromagnetic radiation within a space; it is important to use EMI and RF shielding in a hospital, laboratory, or aerospace setting to protect against competing signals because they may lead to equipment giving false measurements. EMI/RF shielding accomplishes this by blocking AM, FM, TV, emergency services, and cellular signals.

Conductive Graphene PLA Filament is ideal for designing EMI/RF shields used in highly-customized items.

High-Strength mechanical and functional parts

Because Conductive Graphene PLA Filament is mechanically stronger than ABS and PLA, it can be used to 3D print functional parts such as: hooks, hand-tools, and parts which require tooling, including drilling.

Handling

Our filament is shipped in a vacuum-sealed package with a desiccant packet. Conductive Graphene PLA Filament should be stored in a dry environment away from dust and other particles. User should avoid extended exposure to moisture. We recommend storing in an enclosed container with a desiccant packet. 3D printers, especially their nozzles, should always be maintained, and should be cleaned before and after use of Conductive Graphene PLA Filament to avoid complications during printing. Users are also instructed to wash their hands before and after use of Conductive Graphene PLA Filament.

Conductive Graphene PLA Filament softens at high-temperatures (~50°C) and is designed to be used with prints intended for room-temperature operation; it is intended for low-voltage and low-current projects only. Do not exceed 12 volts and avoid using the filament for power supply’s that exceed 100 mA. Resistivity of one meter of 1.75 mm filament is 4 kOhm’s. Keep in mind that a major factor influencing resistivity is contact resistivity, so shortening the length of the trace will not linearly correlate to a decrease in resistivity.

---------
(Might be a decent stock investment BTW....a penny stock that just opened a new facility. )

Graphene 3D Lab

March 29, 2018       Graphene 3D Lab Enters into Technology Transfer Agreement to Commercialize Company's Intellectual Property
March 08, 2018       Graphene 3D Lab Completes Move, Becomes Operational in New Industrial Facility in Ronkonkoma, NY
February 21, 2018   Graphene 3D Lab Announces an Invention in Blockchain and Cryptocurrency Mining Space and Files for IP Protection
January 22, 2018     Graphene 3D Lab Receives $1.2 million in Warrant Proceeds

http://www.graphene3dlab.com/s/technology.asp
http://www.graphene3dlab.com/i/pdf/presentation/presentation.pdf

Graphene

Graphene, a "wonder material" according to the American Physical Society, has a vast array of groundbreaking properties, including the highest strength of any isolated material. It has extraordinary conductivity, flexibility, and transparency. In fact, its initial discovery in 2004 won graphene pioneers Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov the 2010 Nobel Prize in Physics. Since then, graphene has been moving quickly from research laboratories to industrial applications. Leaders in industry and academia (including Samsung, Ford, IBM, Harvard, and MIT) consider graphene as a choice material for the future of electronics, energy storage, drug delivery, and composite materials.

Graphene is a single-atomic-layer of carbon atoms arranged in a hexagonal lattice, similar to the arrangement of a chicken wire fence. Natural graphite, a mineral whose structure can be visualized as a stack of 2D graphene layers, can be used as the precursor for making graphene nanoplatelets. In the process of making graphene nanoplatelets, the graphite crystal is broken into individual graphene sheets. The Company holds a new proprietary technology encompassing the preparation and separation of atomic thin graphene platelets. This technological breakthrough represents a new, energy efficient process to manufacture, sort and classify graphene nanoparticles resulting in the potential for large-scale production of high-grade graphene at lower costs that exist in today's marketplace.

Advanced Solutions for Cryptocurrency Mining

Our Invention


Our technology addresses an overwhelming need for more efficient energy management in data centers, computational facilities, and cryptocurrency mining farms. Bitcoin's recent exponential rise is driving an extraordinary surge in energy usage by centers dedicated to mining cryptocurrencies. According to Bloomberg Technology, the electricity required to mine Bitcoin has risen 43% since October 2017. This not only creates a unique challenge but also an amazing opportunity.

The technology invented by our research team allows harvesting the heat generated by computational hardware in data centers or cryptocurrency mining farms and converting it into a cooling source. This cooling could be further utilized for a variety of purposes ranging from air conditioning these very data centers to food preservation. The systems built based on this technology not only increase ROI for data center operations but also reduce the environmental footprint of blockchain operations.

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Re: Mathis on Graphene? Any hints?

Post by Nevyn on Thu Apr 26, 2018 1:28 am

Damn, it's just a cooling device. You had me excited when you mentioned crypto mining because I've been dabbling in it a bit recently. Not Bitcoin, I'm not rich enough to buy that kind of hardware, but some of the smaller coins (which eventually get exchanged into BTC or ETH). We're heading into winter on this side of the world so a bit of extra heat will be appreciated. Not so in the summer months, though. I guess this isn't going to help me make my millions just yet.
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Re: Mathis on Graphene? Any hints?

Post by Jared Magneson on Thu Apr 26, 2018 2:51 am

This kind of stuff makes me wonder - they can't isolate or even photograph an atom yet, but they have graphite shaved in atom-thick "platelets"? And it's transparent, conductive, and super-strong as well? It has all kinds of amazing properties and can be applied to all kinds of things, and somehow it's one atom thick even though these same people can't isolate or see atomic structures? They're stuck at the ~9-nanometer level in semiconductor manufacturing but somehow that level drops sever orders of magnitude with graphene?

It's pencil lead. I mean sure, that's a straw man and a half, but that's what it's made of. Is it possible that graphene is being oversold to us as a solution for all these things?

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Re: Mathis on Graphene? Any hints?

Post by Cr6 on Fri Apr 27, 2018 1:07 am

Jared Magneson wrote:This kind of stuff makes me wonder - they can't isolate or even photograph an atom yet, but they have graphite shaved in atom-thick "platelets"? And it's transparent, conductive, and super-strong as well? It has all kinds of amazing properties and can be applied to all kinds of things, and somehow it's one atom thick even though these same people can't isolate or see atomic structures? They're stuck at the ~9-nanometer level in semiconductor manufacturing but somehow that level drops sever orders of magnitude with graphene?

It's pencil lead. I mean sure, that's a straw man and a half, but that's what it's made of. Is it possible that graphene is being oversold to us as a solution for all these things?

That's how I see it as well... it would be really cool to 3-D print a new "internet" with big 3-D graphene printers and a MM perspective with it on Charge Flow?  A long-term hope I know....but I remember 1993... tongue

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Re: Mathis on Graphene? Any hints?

Post by Cr6 on Tue May 15, 2018 2:04 am

New view on electron interactions in graphene
March 7, 2018 by Talia Ogliore, Washington University in St. Louis
3-D rendering of the atomic structure of graphene. Credit: Shutterstock

Electrons in graphene—an atomically thin, flexible and incredibly strong substance that has captured the imagination of materials scientists and physicists alike—move at the speed of light, and behave like they have no mass. Now, scientists at Washington University in St. Louis have demonstrated how to view many-particle interactions in graphene using infrared light. The research will be presented at the American Physical Society meeting this week in Los Angeles.

Deep in the sub-basement below Washington University's historic Crow Hall, a research team led by Erik Henriksen, assistant professor of physics in Arts & Sciences, conducts its work in a custom-built vessel cooled to a few degrees above absolute zero. They use a small sliver of graphene sandwiched between two boron-nitride crystals and placed on top of a silicon wafer; at approximately 16 microns long, the entire stack of material is less than one-sixth the size of a human hair.

"Here we have constructed a system that narrowly focuses infrared light down to the sample, which is inside a large magnet and at very low temperature," Henriksen said. "It allows us to literally shine a flashlight on it, and explore its electronic properties by seeing which colors of light are absorbed."

Graphene has generated a lot of excitement in the materials-science research community because of its potential applications in batteries, solar energy cells, touch screens and more. But physicists are more interested in graphene because of its unusual electron structure, under which its electrons behave like relativistic particles.

New view on electron interactions in graphene
Interband Landau level transitions in monolayer. Credit: arXiv:1709.00435

Under normal conditions, electrons always mutually repel each other. Henriksen and his team study how this behavior changes when the electrons seem to have no mass.

By gathering simultaneous measurements of optical and electronic properties in the presence of a high magnetic field, the researchers were able to track the movement of charged particles between orbits with discrete energy values, called Landau levels. A pattern began to emerge.

"A strong magnetic field provides a kind of glue to their motion—it slows them down in some ways," Henriksen said. "You would think it would be a very difficult system to look at. But sometimes, at very specific ranges of the magnetic field strength and the interaction strength, you'll find that, all of a sudden, the system simplifies enormously."

(MORE AT LINK: https://phys.org/news/2018-03-view-electron-interactions-graphene.html )

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Re: Mathis on Graphene? Any hints?

Post by Jared Magneson on Tue May 15, 2018 3:38 am

Something seems odd to me about this last article. It says:


at approximately 16 microns long, the entire stack of material is less than one-sixth the size of a human hair.

16 microns is 16000 nanometers. Our current CPU tech is built on a 12 nanometer process. That is, a transistor in today's CPUs is 12nm across. So they are 1,333 times smaller than this "graphene" stack.

If the graphene stack is so large, how can they claim it's "atomically thin"? The atoms in this graphene are HUGE, then, to be stacked up against a human hair for scale?

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