Psychedelics and the Charge Field?

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Psychedelics and the Charge Field?

Post by Cr6 on Sun Dec 20, 2015 6:10 pm

The way the human brain perceives reality is likely associated with how the Brain "receives" the charge field and processes it in neurons and chemical reactions.  N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) which is naturally in the brain, is likely a key to unlocking how the brain processes the "Charge Field" to form our perceptions/reality.  Perhaps tryptamines have a deep mapping for use with the Charge Field and the reception in the brain?

Chemical data
Formula C12H16N2
Molecular mass 188.269 g/mol
SMILES CN(CCC1=CNC2=C1C=CC=C2)C
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dimethyltryptamine
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5 Powerful Psychedelics That Reorganize the Brain and Elevate Consciousness
http://www.wakingtimes.com/2015/12/17/5-powerful-psychedelics-that-reorganize-brain-elevate-consciousness/

DMT: You Cannot Imagine a Stranger Drug or a Stranger Experience
By Tao Lin
https://www.vice.com/read/dmt-you-cannot-imagine-a-stranger-drug-or-a-stranger-experience-365

The reason it’s so confounding is because its impact is on the language-forming capacity itself. So the reason it’s so confounding is because the thing that is trying to look at the DMT is infected by it—by the process of inspection. So DMT does not provide an experience that you analyze. Nothing so tidy goes on. The syntactical machinery of description undergoes some sort of hyper-dimensional inflation instantly, and then, you know, you cannot tell yourself what it is that you understand. In other words, what DMT does can’t be downloaded into as low-dimensional a language as English.

And the weird thing about DMT is it does not affect what we ordinarily call the mind. The part that you call you—nothing happens to it. You're just like you were before, but the world has been radically replaced—100 percent—it's all gone, and you're sitting there, and you're saying, "Jesus, a minute ago I was in a room with some people, and they were pushing some weird drug on me, and, and now, what's happened? Is this the drug? Did we do it? Is this it?"

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Re: Psychedelics and the Charge Field?

Post by Nevyn on Sun Dec 20, 2015 10:18 pm

I've been doing a bit of my own research into psychedelics lately and found a rather interesting passage in someone's description of their father's experience on LSD (he was taking notes while his father was on the trip). This was a more spiritual experience rather than a 'druggie' thing, and it was a good read too, but this paragraph really blew my mind:


Then he became aware of something new to him -- a dynamic within the crystalline, a soft and flowing quality -- and discovered that he was this too. 'There's all this space between molecules!' 'Right!' I yelled. 'And something in it!' 'Right!!' 'Something strung like embroidery, gathered in accumulations of meaning ...' He savored the polar qualities, invented his own names for them, repeated the names in incantation: 'the angularity of crystal, the sinuousness of vapor;' and then realized, 'There's a sense in which all this is manufacturing itself, all in a harmony, a quality of tension between them.' And with this phrasing of the Tao-poles he went beyond, into the state from which all reappears. He was all, knew that he knew directly the total history of each least tendril of the energy that makes what is. Or so I surmised from my own experience, as he was silent for half an hour, leaving only the buoy of his last assertion to mark the depths he was exploring.

Now it isn't a direct relation, but I couldn't help but think of the charge field when I read that paragraph. Obviously, an experience like this is extremely subjective and people try to explain these things in the terms that they know, but it put a big smile on my face.

This led me to look at the chemical structures of some common drugs and they weren't as complicated as I thought they would be. LSD is probably one of the most complicated, Heroine is slightly less complex but Amphetamines are quite simple, basically just a coupe of Benzene rings attached to each other (Bi-phenol) with some other small hydrocarbons attached as well. It's times like these I really miss being able to create models of molecules.
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Re: Psychedelics and the Charge Field?

Post by Cr6 on Mon Dec 21, 2015 1:04 am

Yeah Nevyn, I agree with your points.  It is something worth keeping an eye on in all of this. How the Charge Field affects our thinking?

For example, another "Charge Field" influenced substance would be ATP and cAMP. They have an interesting connection with Serotonin receptors -- (this is from my very limited research).  These redox reactions are involved in fueling human cell energy. In a peculiar way, LSD/DMT may change the Charge field reception for NAD+ and ATP cycles that ultimately fuel the brain:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adenosine_triphosphate
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NADH
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lysergic_acid_diethylamide

Related is finding out actually "where" memories are "stored" in the brain? This is not fully researched.
https://www.braindecoder.com/where-do-memories-live-1203634193.html

Also simple Glucose
Glucose is then transported across the apical membrane of the enterocytes by SLC5A1 (SGLT1), and later across their basal membrane by SLC2A2 (GLUT2).[24] Some of the glucose is converted to lactic acid by astrocytes, which is then utilized as an energy source by brain cells; some of the glucose is used by intestinal cells and red blood cells, while the rest reaches the liver, adipose tissue and muscle cells, where it is absorbed and stored as glycogen (under the influence of insulin).
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glucose

Erogmines:

Chemical data
Formula C33H35N5O5
Molecular mass 581.66 g/mol
SMILES

   O=C3N1CCC[C@H]1[C@]2(O)O[C@](C(=O)N2[C@H]3Cc4ccccc4)(NC(=O)[C@@H]8/C=C7/c5cccc6c5c(cn6)C[C@H]7N(C)C8)C
Ergotamine is an ergopeptine and part of the ergot family of alkaloids; it is structurally and biochemically closely related to ergoline. It possesses structural similarity to several neurotransmitters, and has biological activity as a vasoconstrictor.

The mechanism of action of ergotamine is complex.[5] The molecule shares structural similarity with neurotransmitters such as serotonin, dopamine, and epinephrine and can thus bind to several receptors acting as an agonist. The anti-migraine effect is due to constriction of the intracranial extracerebral blood vessels through the 5-HT1B receptor, and by inhibiting trigeminal neurotransmission by 5-HT1D receptors. Ergotamine also has effects on the dopamine and norepinephrine receptors. Its side effects are due mainly to its action at the D2 dopamine and 5-HT1A receptors.[6]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ergotamine

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Re: Psychedelics and the Charge Field?

Post by Arborescence on Mon May 30, 2016 4:54 pm

Interesting theories, I've read a lot of theories on psychedelics and will not post it.

It seems that while on LSD (at least on micro-doses), people feel like they are glowing. Maybe the body emits biophotons (see Fritz Albert Popp). Saints are always represented with a halo of light around them and it seems that psychedelics make biophotons in the eyes (phosphenes, hallucinations).

I've also read that dogs and maybe humans (on psychedelics) can have magnetoperception (add http, I'm not allowed to post the link as I'm a new member): https://raypeatforum.com/community/threads/dogs-primates-and-maybe-even-humans-can-sense-magnetic-fields.9908


Last edited by LongtimeAirman on Mon May 30, 2016 8:17 pm; edited 1 time in total (Reason for editing : Activated the link.)
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Re: Psychedelics and the Charge Field?

Post by Jared Magneson on Wed Mar 08, 2017 2:14 pm

I haven't touched these things for twenty years now, but my experiences with LSD and psiolcybin were definitely of a luminal nature. I remember being lost in a Christmas light for what seemed like hours on acid, with a perpetual zooming and some rather intricate matrices as I went deeper and deeper. Light was like a solid. It's very difficult to explain or describe, but it was amazing. The mind is definitely amplified in all ways (except long-term memory, which tends to disappear for the duration).

Once while taking both LSD and psilocybin, I witnessed what I like to call a "pre-tracer". I was gazing up at a blue summer sky, no clouds, and saw a slight wiggle quite a distance up. The wiggle seemed to be soaring, flapping, and flying like a bird. And sure enough, as I looked to my right, there was a seagull some 50-100 feet behind the wiggle. The bird followed the wiggle. I don't think this was temporal distortion or anything magical, but it sure was magnificent. Was my mind simply displacing the bird?

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Re: Psychedelics and the Charge Field?

Post by Cr6 on Sat Mar 11, 2017 9:47 pm

Jared Magneson wrote:I haven't touched these things for twenty years now, but my experiences with LSD and psiolcybin were definitely of a luminal nature. I remember being lost in a Christmas light for what seemed like hours on acid, with a perpetual zooming and some rather intricate matrices as I went deeper and deeper. Light was like a solid. It's very difficult to explain or describe, but it was amazing. The mind is definitely amplified in all ways (except long-term memory, which tends to disappear for the duration).

Once while taking both LSD and psilocybin, I witnessed what I like to call a "pre-tracer". I was gazing up at a blue summer sky, no clouds, and saw a slight wiggle quite a distance up. The wiggle seemed to be soaring, flapping, and flying like a bird. And sure enough, as I looked to my right, there was a seagull some 50-100 feet behind the wiggle. The bird followed the wiggle. I don't think this was temporal distortion or anything magical, but it sure was magnificent. Was my mind simply displacing the bird?

Yeah Jared, the sensitivity to light-photon observations are greatly enhanced though a clear memory of it is not.

There might be something with striosomes in the brain and inputs:

Waeber C, Palacios JM. Binding sites for 5-hydroxytryptamine-2 receptor agonists are predominantly located in striosomes in the human basal ganglia. Brain Res Mol Brain Res 1994;24:199–209.

http://scitechdaily.com/neuroscientists-identify-brain-circuit-that-controls-decision-making-under-conflict/

Neuroscientists Identify Brain Circuit That Controls Decision-Making Under Conflict

The new study grew out of an effort to figure out the role of striosomes — clusters of cells distributed through the the striatum, a large brain region involved in coordinating movement and emotion and implicated in some human disorders. Graybiel discovered striosomes many years ago, but their function had remained mysterious, in part because they are so small and deep within the brain that it is difficult to image them with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).

Previous studies from Graybiel’s lab identified regions of the brain’s prefrontal cortex that project to striosomes. These regions have been implicated in processing emotions, so the researchers suspected that this circuit might also be related to emotion.



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Re: Psychedelics and the Charge Field?

Post by Cr6 on Sun Apr 23, 2017 11:46 pm

Evidence of a 'higher' state of consciousness?
Impact of psychedelics on neural signal diversity measured

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/04/170419091624.htm
(more at link...)

Date: April 19, 2017
Source: University of Sussex
Summary:

Scientific evidence of a 'higher' state of consciousness has been found in a new study. Using brain imaging technology, researchers measured the tiny magnetic fields produced in the brain and found that, across three psychedelic drugs, one measure of conscious level -- the neural signal diversity -- was reliably higher.

Scientific evidence of a 'higher' state of consciousness has been found in a study led by the University of Sussex.

Neuroscientists observed a sustained increase in neural signal diversity -- a measure of the complexity of brain activity -- of people under the influence of psychedelic drugs, compared with when they were in a normal waking state.

The diversity of brain signals provides a mathematical index of the level of consciousness. For example, people who are awake have been shown to have more diverse neural activity using this scale than those who are asleep.

This, however, is the first study to show brain-signal diversity that is higher than baseline, that is higher than in someone who is simply 'awake and aware'. Previous studies have tended to focus on lowered states of consciousness, such as sleep, anaesthesia, or the so-called 'vegetative' state.

The team say that more research is needed using more sophisticated and varied models to confirm the results but they are cautiously excited.

Professor Anil Seth, Co-Director of the Sackler Centre for Consciousness Science at the University of Sussex, said: "This finding shows that the brain-on-psychedelics behaves very differently from normal.

"During the psychedelic state, the electrical activity of the brain is less predictable and less 'integrated' than during normal conscious wakefulness -- as measured by 'global signal diversity'.

"Since this measure has already shown its value as a measure of 'conscious level', we can say that the psychedelic state appears as a higher 'level' of consciousness than normal -- but only with respect to this specific mathematical measure."

For the study, Michael Schartner, Adam Barrett and Professor Seth of the Sackler Centre reanalysed data that had previously been collected by Imperial College London and the University of Cardiff in which healthy volunteers were given one of three drugs known to induce a psychedelic state: psilocybin, ketamine and LSD.

Using brain imaging technology, they measured the tiny magnetic fields produced in the brain and found that, across all three drugs, this measure of conscious level -- the neural signal diversity -- was reliably higher.

This does not mean that the psychedelic state is a 'better' or more desirable state of consciousness, the researchers stress; instead, it shows that the psychedelic brain state is distinctive and can be related to other global changes in conscious level (e.g. sleep, anaesthesia) by application of a simple mathematical measure of signal diversity. Dr Muthukumaraswamy who was involved in all three initial studies commented: "That similar changes in signal diversity were found for all three drugs, despite their quite different pharmacology, is both very striking and also reassuring that the results are robust and repeatable."

The findings could help inform discussions gathering momentum about the carefully-controlled medical use of such drugs, for example in treating severe depression.

Dr Robin Cahart-Harris of Imperial College London said: "Rigorous research into psychedelics is gaining increasing attention, not least because of the therapeutic potential that these drugs may have when used sensibly and under medical supervision.

"The present study's findings help us understand what happens in people's brains when they experience an expansion of their consciousness under psychedelics. People often say they experience insight under these drugs -- and when this occurs in a therapeutic context, it can predict positive outcomes. The present findings may help us understand how this can happen."

As well as helping to inform possible medical applications, the study adds to a growing scientific understanding of how conscious level (how conscious one is) and conscious content (what one is conscious of) are related to each other.

Professor Seth said: "We found correlations between the intensity of the psychedelic experience, as reported by volunteers, and changes in signal diversity. This suggests that our measure has close links not only to global brain changes induced by the drugs, but to those aspects of brain dynamics that underlie specific aspects of conscious experience."

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Re: Psychedelics and the Charge Field?

Post by Cr6 on Sat Dec 09, 2017 1:18 pm

Interesting UV/Flourescent effects from Harmala (an ancient psychedelic):


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Re: Psychedelics and the Charge Field?

Post by Cr6 on Sat Jun 30, 2018 2:16 am

http://beckleyfoundation.org/ayahuasca-stimulates-the-birth-of-new-brain-cells/
(a bit on the research cutting edge...might need more University program input for acceptance...note this is not fully accepted "science"....just findings.--Cr6)

Ayahuasca Stimulates the Birth of New Brain Cells

For a long time, scientists believed that no new neurons are born in the brains of adults, meaning that when our existing brain cells become damaged or die, they are not replaced. However, it was later discovered that neurogenesis – meaning the creation of new neurons – does in fact in occur in the hippocampus, a brain region associated with memory. Unfortunately, the rate of neurogenesis is not always sufficient to replace all of our damaged neurons as we age, which is why many people suffer from dementia and other age-related cognitive deficiencies. Fortunately, a study conducted by the Beckley/Sant Pau Research Programme, and published in the journal Scientific Reports, reveals that certain compounds present in the psychedelic Amazonian brew ayahuasca actually stimulate the birth of new neurons.

Researchers placed harmine and tetrahydroharmine – the most prevalent alkaloids in ayahuasca – in a petri dish with hippocampal stem cells, and found that this greatly increased the rate at which these cells developed into fully mature neurons. The results of this study were first presented at the Interdisciplinary Conference on Psychedelics Research in 2016, and represent the first evidence that components of ayahuasca have neurogenic properties, thereby opening up a wealth of possibilities for future research.

We are currently conducting additional experiments to discern the magnitude of the observed effects, as well as undertaking studies on live animals. The replication of the present findings in vivo would represent a major breakthrough in mental healthcare, with potential applications ranging from treating neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders to redressing brain damage associated with stroke or trauma.

Jordi Riba of the Beckley/Sant Pau Research Programme explains the latest findings, illustrating them with the beautiful images below

What you are seeing is a “static picture” taken after several days of treatment of the stem cells with the different compounds. No neurons were present prior to the three different tretments: a) saline (water+salt); b) harmine; and c) tetrahydroharmine

Neurogenesis_Saline

The first image is the control, when only salty water (saline) added to the cell cultures. The nuclei of the stem cells can be seen in blue.These stem cells have been treated with saline for several days and only a few have developed into young neurons (the few green sports in the image).

Neurogenesis_Harmine

The second image shows the results after several days of treatment with harmine: blue is still present because it’s a marker of cell nuclei, and all cells have nuclei (stem cells and neurons). The green spots are the young neurons marked using Tuj1 staining (this staining is specific for “neuron-specific class III beta-tubulin) present in recently created neurons. The red spots show more mature neurons. The staining marks the “microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP-2). Its presence increases during neuron development.

Neurogenesis_THH

The third image shows the results obtained after several days of treatment with tetrahydroharmine. The meaning of the colors is the same.

Words: Jordi Riba
Head of the Human Neuropsychopharmacology Research Group at Sant Pau Hospital in Barcelona and a co-director with Amanda Feilding, of the Beckley/Sant Pau Research Programme

(More at link: http://beckleyfoundation.org/ayahuasca-stimulates-the-birth-of-new-brain-cells/ )

Also: http://jonlieffmd.com/blog/new-brain-cells-many-triggers-for-neurogenesis

New Brain Cells

Ultrasound Picture of Fetal Brain

New brain cells are actively created during fetal development at a fantastic rate, 250,000 new cells per second in the ninth month of pregnancy. The total number of neurons in the fetal brain reaches almost a thousand billion (a trillion), which are then pruned to 100 billion in the child, this number, basically, remaining throughout life. The pruning of cells occurs through experience; those cells not used are eliminated. In a similar manner connections between these 100 billion cells, up to 10,000 for one neuron, also are created by responding to experience and then pruned if not active

After this fetal period only a relatively small number of cells are made each day and only in very specific places. Neurogenesis occurs definitely in two brain regions, probably in a third region, and perhaps in a fourth. Because it is very difficult to see live single cells in the human brain and animal research cannot be extrapolated to the human brain, the research into adult human neurogenesis is very difficult. But, it is proceeding and there is increasing evidence for these four regions.

The first definite region for new cells is the hippocampus, which is critical for learning and memory (specifically, it occurs in the subgranular zone of hippocampus dentate nucleus). Very recent research has observed new brain cells in a second region. These new neurons are migrating from an area called the subventricular zone (SVZ) to the forebrain through a path called rostral migratory stream (RMS).

There have been many studies that have shown that new cells also migrate to the olfactory bulb, a region connected with learning of smells. Older studies have shown that thousands of new inter-neurons reach the olfactory bulb each day. Clearly memory and new learning of smells were correlated with these new cells.

One recent study didn’t find any new olfactory cells. A criticism of this study is that the subjects were deceased and had illnesses that would decrease the existence of new brain cells. Also, it has been pointed out that new cells occur for new smell learning. In a sanitized Western environment there would be few if any new smells and might not trigger new cells.

A very recent finding is the possibility of new cells in the hypothalamus, a very significant region that regulates metabolism. In this study it appeared that fat cells stimulated new neurons to further coordinate metabolism. This could be a very significant finding for research into diet and obesity.

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Re: Psychedelics and the Charge Field?

Post by Cr6 on Sat Jun 30, 2018 2:42 am




Psychedelics Promote Neural Plasticity

A new study from the University of California, Davis has found that psychedelic drugs such as LSD and DMT promote neural plasticity and development, indicating a potential mechanism for their therapeutic benefits.

Patients who suffer from depression and post-traumatic-stress-disorder tend to have impaired neurogenesis and neuroplasticity – their brain cells grow more slowly and are less adaptable. These structural changes can lead to atrophy of various brain regions, including the hippocampus (which is involved in learning and memory) and the prefrontal cortex (which mediates personality and decision-making).

Counteracting this damage by promoting structural and functional neural plasticity has been suggested as novel way of treating psychiatric disorders. However, relatively few compounds that promote neuroplasticity – which the authors of the new study term ‘psychoplastogens’ – have been found capable of achieving this without drawbacks.

Ketamine, a dissociative anaesthetic with hallucinogenic properties, is a notable exception.  By activating pathways involved with forming neurone connections, it has been found to be an extremely effective therapeutic for treatment-resistant depression (figure 1b).

Similarly, the Beckley/Imperial Psychedelic Research Programme have demonstrated significant and even longer-lasting benefits  of psilocybin in the treatment of depression.(figure 1a).

Fig.1a – Psychedelics have a significant, long-lasting benefit in treating depression (adapted from Carhart-Harris et al. 2016). Fig.1b – Ketamine has similarly shown promise in treatment-resistant depression, though effects do not last as long as those observed with psilocybin (from Zarate et al. 2012).

This new study hoped to elucidate the cellular mechanism by which psychedelics achieve their therapeutic effect by investigating whether and how they affect neural growth and plasticity.

In the first experiment, scientists treated cultures of cortical neurones with psychedelics, and then observed how the neurones developed and increased in complexity (figure 2).

Fig.2 – Psychedelics significantly increased complexity of cortical neurones compared to VEH – no drug. This was measured by analysing how often cell branches and offshoots (neurites) crossed over each other at various distances from the cell centre. The figure includes a representative tracing of a cell from each treatment (Ly et al. 2018)

They found that LSD, DMT, and DOI – all serotonergic psychedelics – significantly increased the growth and complexity of neurones in a similar manner to ketamine, with LSD particularly potent. Interestingly, ibogaine was found to have no effect on neuroplasticity – but its metabolite noribogaine did, suggesting it was the active molecule in the anti-addictive properties of iboga.

As a comparison, amphetamine and serotonin – which share structural similarities with psychedelics – were also tested, and were found to have no effect on measures of neurogenesis.

These effects were observed not only in cell cultures, but also by testing the compounds on the brains of fly larvae and zebrafish, showing that they also have a tangible effect in living organisms.

In a separate measure of neural plasticity, psychedelics were found to significantly increase the number of dendritic spines on cortical neurones, with LSD almost doubling their density (figure 3). These spines form synapses with other neurones and are a major site of molecular activity in the brain. Their functioning is closely related to higher cognition, and loss of these structures is a hallmark of depression and other neuropsychiatric disorders.

Fig.3 – Effect of psychedelics on spinogenesis and synaptogenesis. The number of dendritic spines on cortical neurones – which act as gateways and connections to other neurones – was significantly increased following treatment with psychedelics (Ly et al. 2018)

The positive effects were not only structural, but functional – electrophysiological recordings found that the frequency and strength of neural currents were increased for many hours after the psychedelic compounds had been removed.

The study then further elucidated the molecular mechanisms involved. mTOR is a key component of internal neural signalling pathways, involved with recruiting receptors and forming synapses, and is also known to be the target through which ketamine achieves its antidepressant effect. When mTOR was blocked, the psychoplastogenic effects of psychedelics seen above were also inhibited, indicating that they achieve their effect through a similar mechanism to ketamine.

This study builds on previous findings by the Beckley/Sant Pau Research Programme, which observed that components of the psychedelic brew ayahuasca promoted growth and maturation of neurones (figure 4). Ayahuasca has also been demonstrated to have significant anti-depressant effects, further suggesting neuroplasticity as a common mechanism for the actions of ketamine and psychedelics like LSD and ayahuasca. The Beckley Foundation is determined to investigate this further, both in vitro and in humans, as part of our Research Programmes with Brazil, Maastricht University and Imperial College London.

Fig.4 – Components of the psychedelic brew ayahuasca promote growth and maturation of neurones, demonstrated by cell-cycle-specific staining of neurones in cell culture (from Morales-Garcia et al. 2017).

These findings add yet more scientific evidence for the therapeutic benefit of psychedelic compounds. Not only have psychedelics been demonstrated to have ground-breaking potential in treating previously untreatable psychiatric disorders, but they are almost unique in their ability to promote neuroplasticity in a safe way, healing both mind and brain.

Sadly, psilocybin, LSD, DMT, and other psychedelics remain on Schedule I of both the UK and the UN’s global drug conventions, severely limiting both research and clinical application. The Beckley Foundation is actively campaigning to have psychedelics and other psychoactive medicines re-scheduled, so that doctors and psychotherapists may use them as a tool to help heal those who are not benefiting from currently available treatments. Despite restrictions, we continue to collaborate with research groups all over the world to better understand these compounds – together, we hope to create a paradigm shift in psychiatry which will benefit all of society.
Words: Nick Cherbanich

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(More at link:  http://beckleyfoundation.org/2018/06/13/psychedelics-promote-neural-plasticity/ )

https://web.stanford.edu/group/hopes/cgi-bin/hopes_test/brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-bdnf/
http://web.stanford.edu/group/hopes/cgi-bin/hopes_test/huntingtin-protein-and-protein-aggregation/

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Re: Psychedelics and the Charge Field?

Post by Cr6 on Sun Jul 01, 2018 11:30 pm

Neurogenesis: How To Increase Nerve Growth Factor (NGF)

Can the human brain keep expanding and reshaping itself throughout adulthood?

You bet it can.

And some of today’s most exciting neuroscience research is uncovering surprising new ways to promote brain growth that can enhance our minds, moods, and cognitive abilities as long as we live.

The irrefutable evidence of adult neurogenesis, or the brain’s ability to generate new neurons at any age, was a long time coming but is among the most important neuroscientific discoveries.

It has inspired a whole new generation of research that has already led to major advances in cognitive enhancement, including improved memory, mood management, and learning ability, as well as the potential treatment of devastating neurological ailments like Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases.

What Happens When We Grow New Neurons?

Neurons are the specialized nerve impulse transmission cells that serve as the basic working unit of the brain, and neurogenesis is one of the body’s most powerful processes.

The effects that neurogenesis creates are described by the concept of neuroplasticity, or the brain’s ability to change, adapt, and rearrange itself.

At the most basic level, neurogenesis is the opposite of its compliment process, cell death, and together they create a state of neural turnover that helps keep the brain active and receptive; new neurons are believed to have a higher potential for plasticity than older, more rigid neurons.

Neurogenesis also enhances the performance of neural networks within the brain, providing the basis for new neural connections.

​Save Big on Nootropics


This in turn leads to improved capabilities in virtually all areas of cognition, from improved memory function to the ability to adapt to new environments, adopt new behaviors, and establish new patterns of thinking.

Briefly put, the more neurons the brain has to work with and the fresher those neurons are, the better the brain performs.

In terms of cognitive enhancement, neurogenesis is a proven scientific rebuttal to the idea that intelligence and ability are fixed and unchangeable after childhood, and it completely invalidates the idea that brain aging necessarily results in diminished activity and capability.

In terms of treatment and perhaps even prevention of neurological diseases, neurogenesis holds real promise.

A Scientific About-Face That Changed The Way We Understand The Brain

Our current understanding of neurogenesis and all it involves is surprisingly new. In one of history’s most exciting scientific about-faces, the 1990s at last saw the reversal of the long-held idea that neuron growth primarily occurred prenatally and stopped entirely after childhood.

Until only a few decades ago, the adult brain was considered a fixed and unchanging entity with a set number of neurons that could not be replenished.

Because the adult brain was believed to be incapable of growing new neurons, mature brain function was considered a given that could not be improved or expanded, and any damage to existing neurons was believed to be irreparable.

This belief not only denied the possibility of enhancing adult cognitive abilities, it implied a bleak progress to inevitable age-related mental decline and set a grim prognosis for victims of stroke, neurological disease, or anyone who suffered neurological damage of any kind.

In 1962, American neurobiologist Joseph Altman discovered that the adult brain is capable of creating new neurons, but his findings were largely disregarded. Animal and bird studies conducted in the 1970s supported Altman’s findings.

However, papers published in the 1980s by respected neurobiologist Paslo Rakic convinced much of the scientific community that adult neurogenesis was limited to lower order animals and did not apply to the human brain.

It wasn’t until the late 1990s, when a series of groundbreaking studies by Peter Eriksson, Fred Gage, and Elizabeth Gould showed concrete evidence of neurogenesis in the hippocampal region of the adult human brain, that the concept of adult brain growth was at last accepted as a scientific reality.

Growing New Neurons in Adulthood

It’s now generally accepted that adult neurogenesis takes place in two specific areas of the brain. New neuron growth occurs in the dentate gyrus, a substructure within the hippocampus, and in the subventricular zone, which is located within the walls of the lateral ventricle in the forebrain.

New neurons are produced by the division of neural precursor cells, sometimes referred to as neural stem cells. These early stage cells have the potential to become either neurons or support cells.

The exact stimulation that makes neural precursor cells become neurons is still being studied, but the discovery of Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) established widespread acceptance that neurotrophins, proteins secreted by support cells called astrocytes, are a primary factor in encouraging precursor cells to proliferate and mature into neurons.

What is Nerve Growth Factor?

Nerve Growth Factor was the first neurotrophin to be isolated and studied, and its discovery has opened the door to new understanding of neurogenesis.

NGF was first identified by Italian scientist Rita Levi-Montalcini, who was awarded the 1986 Nobel Prize for Medicine for her research.

NGF has been extensively studied and it is now known to play a crucial role in both encouraging neurogenesis and in maintaining the health and efficiency of the human neural network as a whole.

It promotes the differentiation of neural stem cells and promotes their development into neurons and improves memory and cognition thanks to its neuroprotective and repair capabilities.

NGF has been shown to enhance both spatial memory and recent memory, and it also promotes long-term memory formation.

Supplements That Promote Nerve Growth Factor

Levi-Montalcini remained mentally alert and active until her death at the age of 103 and claimed that daily doses of NGF, taken via eye drops, were largely responsible for her continued mental clarity and vigor.

Though the cost of NGF in this form (estimated at over $10,000 per year) puts it well out of the reach of most people, there are affordable and readily available supplements that have been proven to enhance the body’s natural production of NGF.

1. Lion’s Mane Mushroom Razz (good stuff...tried it)

Lion’s Mane Mushroom (also known as the Yamabushitake mushroom) is a well known nootropic or smart drug that has been proven to stimulate the production of NGF.

The Lion’s Mane mushroom has been a staple of Chinese medicine for centuries, used both as a memory and cognition enhancer and as a treatment for gastric problems and inflammatory disorders.

Modern research on the Lion’s Mane indicates that it contains neuroactive compounds which induce NGF synthesis.

It also acts as an antioxidant and neuroprotective against oxidative stress, which is an important cause of cellular damage that can lead to neural death.

Though Lion’s Mane Mushroom is a powerful nootropic and neurogenesis promoting agent on its own, it’s even more effective when taken in combination with other NGF-enhancing compounds.

2. Noopept

Noopept is a relatively new nootropic developed in Russia in 1995, compliments the neurogenesis-promoting action of Lion’s Mane Mushroom.

A synthetic peptide that readily crosses the blood brain barrier, Noopept provides a cognitive boost similar to that of the well-known nootropic piracetam, but it is much more potent.

Like Lion’s Mane mushroom, Noopept has been shown to increase the expression of NGF in the hippocampus and it is believed to significantly enhance neuronal restoration, which makes it a potential treatment for neurological diseases like Alzheimer’s.

Studies show that Noopept also enhances production of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor or BDNF in animal models, which helps reinforce the survival of existing neurons and strengthen the growth and differentiation of new neurons and synapses.

3. Alpha GPC

Alpha GPC is a high quality source of choline, a crucial B vitamin that fuels tissue renewal and is the building block for acetylcholine, the neurotransmitter most strongly associated with learning, memory, and cognition.

Studies indicate that NGF increases the synthesis of choline to acetylcholine in the forebrain and hippocampus, so maintaining a sufficiency of choline is essential to the growth and survival of new neurons.

Lion’s Mane mushroom, Noopept, and Alpha GPC can all boost the process of neurogenesis. Taken in combination they’re an excellent means of helping the brain create new neurons.

The Nootropic/Neurogenesis Effect of Running

Taking supplements isn’t the only means of encouraging neurogenesis. Research indicates that one of the best ways to promote the creation of new neurons is as simple as going for a run.

As little as 30 to 40 minutes of vigorous aerobic activity has been shown to lead to the growth of new neurons, triggered by an exercise-induced increase in the expression of NGF and the proliferation of cholinergic neurons.

Scientists believe there may be a direct relationship between exercise-induced neurogenesis and the mood improvement, feelings of calm alertness, and pervasive mental clarity that people typically experience after a run or period of vigorous aerobic exercise.

The new cell growth that has been observed after running occurs in the hippocampus, which is strongly associated with learning and memory.

In addition, running can help promote the health and continued growth of both new and existing neurons by increasing blood flow to the frontal lobe.

This increased blood flow not only has a definite neuroprotective effect, it’s also known to be a mood booster and can result in significant cognitive benefits like increased focus, clearer thinking, and improved planning, time management, and decision making.

The Dietary Difference


Eating the right foods can actually encourage neurogenesis. Animal studies show that curcuminoids, components of the Indian spice turmeric, increase new neuron production in the hippocampus.

Studies of the effects of curcuminoids on human neurogenesis are limited and inconclusive, but curcumin is known to have cognition enhancing properties.

Other foods that promote neurogenesis include the Omega-3 fatty acids found in fish like salmon and tuna, which are known to upregulate the production of new neurons in adult brains.

The anthocyanin dye that naturally gives blueberries their distinctive color is also believed to encourage neurogenesis, and animal studies confirm that a substance called epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) contained in green tea encouraged new neuron growth in adult mice.

While no similar studies have documented the same effect in humans, green tea is known to have a beneficial effect on general cognition.

More Ways To Encourage Neurogenesis


One of the most reliable means of promoting brain health and new neuron growth is living in what science refers to as an enriched environment, in which the brain is stimulated by both its physical and social surroundings.

In addition to healthy diet and sufficient physical exercise, an enriched environment also includes intellectual challenge, novelty and exposure to new things, and close bonds with others.

In the 1960s neuroscientist Marian Diamond published groundbreaking studies on the effects of enriched vs. impoverished environments, documenting the effects of both in terms of brain development. Animals living in enriched environments consistently developed larger brains, while those in impoverished environments shows signs of brain atrophy.

Many studies have since confirmed Diamond’s findings, showing that enriched environments encourage neurogenesis.

This research is of particular interest in the study of age-related cognitive decline and neurological conditions like Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases.

It’s possible that the increased neurogenesis created by simply enriching the environment could offset age-related cognitive decline and brain atrophy to at least some extent, and may help delay or prevent the onset of other neurological conditions.

But promoting neurogenesis isn’t all about exercise, healthy food, and enriched environments. Studies have linked both psilocybin mushrooms and the cannabinoids found in laboratory-grade synthetic marijuana with increased neurogenesis, and a 2010 study indicates that sexual experience increases neurogenesis in the hippocampus.

Sexual experience has also been found to restore age-related decline in adult neurogenesis.

The Down Side: Factors That Inhibit Neurogenesis


Just as there are factors that can promote the growth of new neurons, there are factors that can inhibit it.

Excessive stress, isolation and extensive exposure to impoverished environments, and prolonged sleep deprivation have all been shown to reduce neurogenesis.

Lack of regular aerobic exercise can reduce the rate of new neuron growth, as can excess consumption of alcohol and refined sugars.

https://corpina.com/neurogenesis-how-to-increase-nerve-growth-factor-ngf/

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Re: Psychedelics and the Charge Field?

Post by Cr6 on Sun Jul 01, 2018 11:43 pm


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Re: Psychedelics and the Charge Field?

Post by Cr6 on Sun Jul 01, 2018 11:48 pm

A pretty good article on Lion's Mane (disclosure: I don't have any financial connection with this site/products):
========================
(More details at link:  https://www.nootropedia.com/lions-mane/  )

Last updated: May 13, 2017

Summary

In 2015 famed writer, Michael Pollan, wrote The Trip Treatment [1] about the medicinal effects of psychedelic mushrooms. While the psychedelic variety are becoming popularized with less stigma attached to them, many traditional cultures and nootropics users have been using medicinal mushrooms for many years. Lion’s mane mushroom is in a class of fungus used for improving general health and cognitive performance.
Related Topics

   Racetams
   Cholinergics
   Nootropics

Lion’s mane mushroom is a promising supplement for combating symptoms of anxiety, can decrease feelings of depression [2], and can help prevent some aspects of cognitive decline [3]. The medicinal mushroom can also improve some aspects of neurogenesis and act as a neuroprotective compound [4].

The mushroom is also known to be an immune booster with healthy adults and those who are suffering from cancer [5]. While these studies are inconclusive and few, the preliminary evidence seems promising.

Beyond the brain benefits of lion’s mane, there are many other heart and cholesterol related enhancements, which make this a general health tonic in many traditional cultures.
Also Known As

Hericium erinaceus, Lion’s Mane, Monkey’s Head, Houtou (infrequent), Igelstachelbart, Pom Pom Blanc, Hedgehog Mushroom, Satyr’s Beard
Editors’ Thoughts on Lion’s Mane

I’ve never tried lion’s mane mushroom, but the popularity on nootropics communities is far greater than the research would suggest. I cannot guess why it is more popular in the community than is warranted based on the research, but if I had to then I would suggest it has something to do with the fact it is a medicinal mushroom with mood enhancing (or at least anxiety reducing) effects.

A lot of people swear by lion’s mane, but some people also have strong reactions that seem more intense. Perhaps this is a result of taking extracts rather than simply the medicinal mushroom itself.

Mansal Denton, Nootropedia Editor

LionsMane

Benefits of Lion’s Mane

The main cognitive benefits of lion’s mane seem to be related to anxiety, depression, and the prevention of cognitive decline (i.e: neuroprotection). The evidence is a bit lacking, but predominantly looks at anxiety and depression. In one 4 week study, doses of lion’s mane were given to 30 participants and found significant improvements in feelings of anxiety and depression [5].

Aside from anxiety, lion’s mane can improve the cognitive performance of those who are already in decline. A 16 week trial of 50 – 80 year olds showed improvements in their cognitive abilities with lion’s mane mushroom [6]. While this study shows some evidence of neuroprotection, it isn’t very convincing. More compelling evidence exists on the interactions within the brain, however.

For example, lion’s mane mushroom can increase the expression of nerve-growth factor (NGF) in some regions of the brain (such as the hippocampus, but not the cortex) [7]. This increase in NGF can support neurogenesis and general cognitive health. It may even be able to support the regrowth of neurons after injury, which has been replicated in a single rat study [8]. This doesn’t mean anyone with brain injuries will instantly recover, but it is a theoretical possibility.

What is most interesting about these lion’s mane mushroom benefits is how they correlate together. Although no studies explore the connection, neurogenesis (the growth of new cells) is supposed to be an effective way to reduce anxiety and depression. A lions mane mushroom extract can increase nerve-growth and studies suggest it reduces anxiety. One potential cause for reduced anxiety and depression is the increased neurogenesis of lions mane mushroom.
How Does Lion’s Mane Mushroom Work?

Like many other medicinal mushrooms, lion’s mane is filled with bioactive compounds (usually called polysaccharides), which alter brain chemistry. These compounds can change things (such as mRNA expression), which have downstream effects like reducing anxiety, depression, or increasing NGF.

These same polysaccharides are responsible for stimulating the immune system, which can be so powerful they inhibit the metastasis of cancers by up to 66-69% [9]. While lion’s mane mushroom health benefits are many, the immune boosting and cancer reducing effects are common of many within the medicinal mushroom family (including chaga, reishi, and others).

This suggests that although the lion’s mane nootropic might work uniquely compared to other medicinal mushroom products, there are commonalities within the polysaccharides. These are often referred to as “beta-glucans”, which are the main psychoactive ingredient in medicinal mushrooms. In fact, they are so important, most of the products are standardized to beta glucans so that you know the percentage.
Side Effects of Lion’s Mane Mushroom

Many of the side effects of lion’s mane mushroom are not documented in scientific journals or literature, but instead through the active and avid nootropics community. Some people complain of headaches from taking lion’s mane. Other people anecdotally report having increased heartbeat as well.

There are many confounding variables, but one case study in a 63 year old man found that 4 months of lion’s mane may have been to blame for respiratory failure [10]. However, this may have just been related to allergies. Attributing this to lion’s mane alone is not feasible.

Finally, some people claim lion’s mane side effects include itchy skin, but this may be a sign of increased nerve growth factor as opposed to any negative reaction [11]. Unless it is accompanied with other signs of allergies, this should not be a problem.

The lion’s mane mushroom side effects will vary by the person and the dose. Those taking a high lion’s mane dosage might find they experience a headache, but this is usually caused by the extract rather than the product itself. Remember, people have been using lion’s mane mushroom for thousands of years.
Lion’s Mane Dosage

Lion’s mane research is scarce and the dosage recommendations are guesswork. The human study that exists used a dose of 1,000 mg with 96% purity extract three times a day (total of 3,000 mg extract). This is considered to be an effective dose of lion’s mane.

A good place to start is 500 – 1,000 mg of lion’s mane extract.

Keep in mind, this will depend heavily upon the psychoactive beta-glucans. If your lion’s mane supplement has 10% beta-glucans, you will need double the dosage compared to a 20% beta-glucan product.
How and Where to Buy Lion’s Mane Mushroom

When dealing with mushrooms and their extracts, it can be pretty difficult to find the right product. There may be lion’s mane mushroom for sale in your local grocery store as it is approved by the FDA, but that doesn’t mean you’ll get the best product there. Most are not standardized for optimal doses and the online marketplace is a much better place to go.

An important feature when you buy lion’s mane is to make sure that you have lion’s mane mushroom that is standardized to the right extract. Also, given the high volume of pesticides on many conventional products, it is best to find an organic solution if you can.

The Nammex company operates to provide organic lion’s mane extract for the safest product without pesticides. The partnership between Nammex and Nootropics Depot is why we recommend that you buy lion’s mane from them to ensure a high quality product at a reasonable price.
Lion’s Mane Mushroom Extract: Fruiting Bodies vs. Mycelium

Another reason we are big proponents of Nammex (and their partnership with Pure Nootropics and Nootropics Depot) is because of the importance of getting products with fruiting bodies as opposed to mycelium growth medicinal mushrooms. The main lion’s mane mushroom health benefits come from the fruiting bodies, which is where all the psychoactive ingredients are located.

The mycelium is the root of the mushroom, which has few (if any) real benefits. The biggest problem is that most lion’s mane supplement products have the mycelium rather than the fruiting body as the source. Even the biggest brands on Amazon have unfortunately fallen to this problem and plenty of unsuspecting customers have purchased unknowingly.

Ensure your lions mane (and any other medicinal mushroom you purchase) is made with fruiting bodies and not the mycelium. As we have indicated, we believe lion’s mane from this vendor is the best.
Selected Community Experiences

“The taste isn’t that bad, a bit like marmite/vegemite really. The effects were very strong mental stimulation. Increase in mental alertness. I used it everyday for about a week, until half way through a game of tennis, my heartbeat wouldn’t slow down (tahcycardia) for the rest of the night.” [11] – se7endays

“17th day of taking Lion’s Mane. I feel no noticeable results. In fact, I’m afraid it exacerbates some mood and sleep problems.” [12] – MrZeratul
Lions Mane Mushroom Reviews

The selected community experiences we have added above are indicators of how the nootropic can impact healthy adults. Many of the studies on lions mane mushroom are done on patients with some form of disease or illness  rather than people aiming to enhance their cognitive performance.

While a scientific approach is great to understanding the underlying mechanisms that make lion’s mane work, it is important to also look at anecdotal evidence and support in order to get a clearer picture of the lion’s mane mushroom benefits for you specifically.

References (Click to Expand)

       //www.newyorker.com/magazine/2015/02/09/trip-treatment
       //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20834180
       //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18844328
       //www.dl.begellhouse.com/journals/708ae68d64b17c52,0d49dda96a2a7147,504922782f5fa5ea.html
       //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20834180
       //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18844328
       //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18758067
       //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21941586
       //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23668749
       //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14714963
       //www.reddit.com/r/Nootropics/comments/1uy2ni/has_anyone_tried_lions_mane/
       //www.reddit.com/r/Nootropics/comments/3haz94/doubting_lions_mane/

Other Scientific Resources (Click to Expand)

       //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18758067
       //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23510212
       //www.ffcr.or.jp/zaidan/ffcrhome.nsf/7bd44c20b0dc562649256502001b65e9/c2765dde594a7331492568a2000af644/$FILE/175-10.pdf
       //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16141599
       //www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/003194229280127Z
       //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18835171
       //www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0040402006010362
       //www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0040403996016875
       //agris.fao.org/agris-search/search/display.do?f=1995/GB/GB95049.xml;GB9417176
       //www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/001457939480172X
       //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12776329
       //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1368310
       //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20380848
       //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19809252
       //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16458867
       //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23000690
       //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21716693
       //www.mendeley.com/research/effects-cultivation-techniques-processing-antimicrobial-antioxidant-activities-hericium-erinaceus-bull-fr-pers-extracts
       //www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0040403900767608
       //www.dl.begellhouse.com/journals/708ae68d64b17c52,0d49dda96a2a7147,504922782f5fa5ea.html
       //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19661683
       //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12675022
       //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21383512
       //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18844328
       //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20834180
       //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21941586
       //www.begellhouse.com/journals/708ae68d64b17c52,0d49dda96a2a7147,6ce1a4f7295df1fb.html
       //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15102010
       //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20637576
       //www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0963996900001496
       //www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0196978104001196

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