The human eye can see 'invisible' infrared light

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The human eye can see 'invisible' infrared light

Post by Cr6 on Mon Sep 03, 2018 10:07 pm


The human eye can see 'invisible' infrared light
December 1, 2014, Washington University School of Medicine

The human eye can see 'invisible' infrared light

The eye can detect light at wavelengths in the visual spectrum. Other wavelengths, such as infrared and ultraviolet, are supposed to be invisible to the human eye, but Washington University scientists have found that under certain conditions, it's possible for us to see otherwise invisible infrared light. Credit: Sara Dickherber

Any science textbook will tell you we can't see infrared light. Like X-rays and radio waves, infrared light waves are outside the visual spectrum. But an international team of researchers co-led by scientists at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis has found that under certain conditions, the retina can sense infrared light after all.

Using cells from the retinas of mice and people, and powerful lasers that emit pulses of infrared light, the researchers found that when laser light pulses rapidly, light-sensing cells in the retina sometimes get a double hit of infrared energy. When that happens, the eye is able to detect light that falls outside the visible spectrum.

"We're using what we learned in these experiments to try to develop a new tool that would allow physicians to not only examine the eye but also to stimulate specific parts of the retina to determine whether it's functioning properly," said senior investigator Vladimir J. Kefalov, PhD, associate professor of ophthalmology and visual sciences at Washington University. "We hope that ultimately this discovery will have some very practical applications."

The findings are published Dec. 1 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) Online Early Edition. Collaborators include scientists in Cleveland, Poland, Switzerland and Norway,

The research was initiated after scientists on the research team reported seeing occasional flashes of green light while working with an infrared laser. Unlike the laser pointers used in lecture halls or as toys, the powerful infrared laser the scientists worked with emits light waves thought to be invisible to the human eye.
The human eye can see 'invisible' infrared light
Frans Vinberg, PhD (left), and Vladimir J. Kefalov, PhD, sit in front of a tool they developed that allows them to detect light responses from retinal cells and photopigment molecules. Credit: Robert Boston

"They were able to see the laser light, which was outside of the normal visible range, and we really wanted to figure out how they were able to sense light that was supposed to be invisible," said Frans Vinberg, PhD, one of the study's lead authors and a postdoctoral research associate in the Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences at Washington University.

Vinberg, Kefalov and their colleagues examined the scientific literature and revisited reports of people seeing infrared light. They repeated previous experiments in which infrared light had been seen, and they analyzed such light from several lasers to see what they could learn about how and why it sometimes is visible.

"We experimented with laser pulses of different durations that delivered the same total number of photons, and we found that the shorter the pulse, the more likely it was a person could see it," Vinberg explained. "Although the length of time between pulses was so short that it couldn't be noticed by the naked eye, the existence of those pulses was very important in allowing people to see this invisible light."

Normally, a particle of light, called a photon, is absorbed by the retina, which then creates a molecule called a photopigment, which begins the process of converting light into vision. In standard vision, each of a large number of photopigments absorbs a single photon.
Our eyes aren't supposed to be able to see infrared light because infrared light waves are longer than the waves in the visual spectrum, but new work from vision researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis finds that sometimes we can see infrared light. and those researchers have figured out how it is that our eyes do that. Credit: Washington University BioMed Radio


But packing a lot of photons in a short pulse of the rapidly pulsing laser light makes it possible for two photons to be absorbed at one time by a single photopigment, and the combined energy of the two light particles is enough to activate the pigment and allow the eye to see what normally is invisible.

"The visible spectrum includes waves of light that are 400-720 nanometers long," explained Kefalov, an associate professor of ophthalmology and visual sciences. "But if a pigment molecule in the retina is hit in rapid succession by a pair of photons that are 1,000 nanometers long, those light particles will deliver the same amount of energy as a single hit from a 500-nanometer photon, which is well within the visible spectrum. That's how we are able to see it."
(more at link:
https://phys.org/news/2014-12-human-eye-invisible-infrared.html
)

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Re: The human eye can see 'invisible' infrared light

Post by LongtimeAirman on Mon Sep 03, 2018 11:06 pm

.
Hey Cr6, what a surprise, if we just add the right amount of energy to infrared light, we may actually see it.

I have a similar example, under special conditions I’m able to see ultra-violet. This is the first time I’ve thought to mention it to anyone. I see it sometimes while reading in bed, depending on the paper the book is made with. Believe it or not, the effect was the most visible when I read Miles’ Navigating the Nucleus. When the book is open about 90 degrees, well illuminated from a compact fluorescent lamp from just above and behind my head, but not overly bright, where the pages join together I can clearly see an ultraviolet glow. I imagine visible light energy is amplified by many reflections of visible light occurring in the angle between the two halves of the open book.
.

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Re: The human eye can see 'invisible' infrared light

Post by Cr6 on Fri Sep 07, 2018 11:02 pm

Well LTAM...I've always believed the "photon" as a way of illuminating the "truth"... Wink

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Re: The human eye can see 'invisible' infrared light

Post by Jared Magneson on Tue Sep 18, 2018 9:01 pm

Wouldn't that just be a violet glow, though? I'm curious.

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Re: The human eye can see 'invisible' infrared light

Post by LongtimeAirman on Tue Sep 18, 2018 10:08 pm

.
I've been tested, I know I've been blessed with exceptional color vision. The color I see is indeed a violet glow, but is it ultra-violet? Of course I don't know. Where did it come from? Given the article at the top of this string, I can imagine how we might be able to see photons at other than visible radii.

There's another place I see the same violet glow - when I tear/cut the plastic seal off the the lid of the ice cream container with a knife - thrown in the sink in direct sunlight - a beautiful violet glow. In previous posts, articles and discussions here at the site, plastic is a special substance, pulling off scotch tape gives off light.

Back to the book, the glow I see, but didn't get around to describe, seems to come from the air above where the pages join together. I believe each page in the book might offer another phase front source that may help explain what I'm seeing. I'm not necessarily making a claim, so much as sharing an interesting observation. In light of the charge field.
.

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Re: The human eye can see 'invisible' infrared light

Post by Cr6 on Thu Sep 20, 2018 9:45 pm

You know LTAM and Jared there's surprisingly a lot of recent research on BioPhotons:
(cough...they are just saying...  Cool  )

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Human high intelligence is involved in spectral redshift of biophotonic activities in the brain
Zhuo Wang, Niting Wang, Zehua Li, Fangyan Xiao, and Jiapei Dai
PNAS August 2, 2016 113 (31) 8753-8758; published ahead of print July 18, 2016 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1604855113

   Edited by Michael A. Persinger, Laurentian University, Canada, and accepted by Editorial Board Member Marlene Behrmann May 20, 2016 (received for review March 24, 2016)

http://www.pnas.org/content/113/31/8753.abstract

Significance

It is still unclear why human beings hold higher intelligence than other animals on Earth and which brain properties might explain the differences. The recent studies have demonstrated that biophotons may play a key role in neural information processing and encoding and that biophotons may be involved in quantum brain mechanism; however, the importance of biophotons in relation to animal intelligence, including that of human beings, is not clear. Here, we have provided experimental evidence that glutamate-induced biophotonic activities and transmission in brain slices present a spectral redshift feature from animals (bullfrog, mouse, chicken, pig, and monkey) to humans, which may be a key biophysical basis for explaining why human beings hold higher intelligence than that of other animals.

Abstract

Human beings hold higher intelligence than other animals on Earth; however, it is still unclear which brain properties might explain the underlying mechanisms. The brain is a major energy-consuming organ compared with other organs. Neural signal communications and information processing in neural circuits play an important role in the realization of various neural functions, whereas improvement in cognitive function is driven by the need for more effective communication that requires less energy. Combining the ultraweak biophoton imaging system (UBIS) with the biophoton spectral analysis device (BSAD), we found that glutamate-induced biophotonic activities and transmission in the brain, which has recently been demonstrated as a novel neural signal communication mechanism, present a spectral redshift from animals (in order of bullfrog, mouse, chicken, pig, and monkey) to humans, even up to a near-infrared wavelength (∼865 nm) in the human brain. This brain property may be a key biophysical basis for explaining high intelligence in humans because biophoton spectral redshift could be a more economical and effective measure of biophotonic signal communications and information processing in the human brain.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0148336
https://emmind.net/endogenous_fields-mind-ebp-biophotons_bokkon_theory_vision.html

Biophotonic Activity and Transmission Mediated by Mutual Actions of Neurotransmitters are Involved in the Origin and Altered States of Consciousness
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1011134413002881

Spatiotemporal Imaging of Glutamate-Induced Biophotonic Activities and Transmission in Neural Circuits
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3893221/ (btw...hypoglycemia can cause an abrupt loss of brain bio-available glutamate--Cr6 see: https://experts.umn.edu/en/publications/changes-in-human-brain-glutamate-concentration-during-hypoglycemi)

Photon Entanglement Through Brain Tissue (applied light)
https://www.nature.com/articles/srep37714

Biophotonic Activity and Transmission Mediated by Mutual Actions of Neurotransmitters are Involved in the Origin and Altered States of Consciousness
https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Wang_Zhuo15/publication/323559645_Biophotonic_Activity_and_Transmission_Mediated_by_Mutual_Actions_of_Neurotransmitters_are_Involved_in_the_Origin_and_Altered_States_of_Consciousness/links/5aa795650f7e9bbbff8cfb62/Biophotonic-Activity-and-Transmission-Mediated-by-Mutual-Actions-of-Neurotransmitters-are-Involved-in-the-Origin-and-Altered-States-of-Consciousness.pdf

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3893221/

Convergence of Numbers of Synapses and Quantum Foci Within Human Brain Space: Quantitative
Implications of the Photon as the Source of Cognition

http://www.scipress.com/ILCPA.30.59.pdf

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Biophotons Contribute to Retinal Dark Noise


   1.Wuhan Institute for Neuroscience and NeuroengineeringSouth Central University for NationalitiesWuhanChina
   2.Department of Neurobiology, College of Life SciencesSouth Central University for NationalitiesWuhanChina

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12264-016-0029-6

Report
First Online: 08 April 2016

Abstract

The discovery of dark noise in retinal photoreceptors resulted in a long-lasting controversy over its origin and the underlying mechanisms. Here, we used a novel ultra-weak biophoton imaging system (UBIS) to detect biophotonic activity (emission) under dark conditions in rat and bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) retinas in vitro. We found a significant temperature-dependent increase in biophotonic activity that was completely blocked either by removing intracellular and extracellular Ca2+ together or inhibiting phosphodiesterase 6. These findings suggest that the photon-like component of discrete dark noise may not be caused by a direct contribution of the thermal activation of rhodopsin, but rather by an indirect thermal induction of biophotonic activity, which then activates the retinal chromophore of rhodopsin. Therefore, this study suggests a possible solution regarding the thermal activation energy barrier for discrete dark noise, which has been debated for almost half a century.

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Speculative but interesting:

https://hipmonkey.wordpress.com/2014/02/08/biophotons-the-human-body-emits-communicates-with-and-is-made-from-light/

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Node of Ranvier as an Array of Bio-Nanoantennas for Infrared Communication in Nerve Tissue

   Andrea Zangari, Davide Micheli, Roberta Galeazzi & Antonio Tozzi

Scientific Reportsvolume 8, Article number: 539 (2018) | Download Citation
Abstract

Electromagnetic radiation, in the visible and infrared spectrum, is increasingly being investigated for its possible role in the most evolved brain capabilities. Beside experimental evidence of electromagnetic cellular interactions, the possibility of light propagation in the axon has been recently demonstrated using computational modelling, although an explanation of its source is still not completely understood. We studied electromagnetic radiation onset and propagation at optical frequencies in myelinated axons, under the assumption that ion channel currents in the node of Ranvier behave like an array of nanoantennas emitting in the wavelength range from 300 to 2500 nm. Our results suggest that the wavelengths below 1600 nm are most likely to propagate throughout myelinated segments. Therefore, a broad wavelength window exists where both generation and propagation could happen, which in turn raises the possibility that such a radiation may play some role in neurotransmission.
Introduction

The intriguingly complex nature of the brain has always encouraged extensive studies on neuronal communication, aiming to understand signaling mechanisms and their integration into neural functions of the highest level. New perspectives have been revealed by approaching different biophysical mechanisms, which may coexist with the established chemical and electrical properties of cellular membranes1. In this context, previous studies on the electromagnetic properties of neurons gained increasing interest, resulting in further achievements and new open questions2,3,4. It seems therefore appropriate to explore the possible implications, which may add further knowledge to the current theoretical and experimental work in this direction.

Since early decisive studies, electrochemical phenomena have been shown to be predominant in the generation and traveling of information5.

The conduction of signals within neurons is sustained by a propagating phenomenon known as action potential (AP), which is a sharp change in the electrical potential across the cell membrane, in which different ionic species are involved. Once triggered, this process travels down the whole axon towards synapses. Some axons are coated with myelin, a multilayered lipid envelope, provided by surrounding glial cells and interrupted at regular distances. These gaps are called nodes of Ranvier (NR)6. In myelinated fibers the AP is triggered in the axon initial segment (AIS) and in the NR, where ion channels are concentrated, and leaps from node to node at a rate significantly higher than in unmyelinated axons. This process is known as “saltatory conduction”7.

The original Hodgkin–Huxley (HH) theory models each component of an excitable cell as an electrical element, taking into account the concentration of the main ionic species involved5. The transmission of APs in myelinated fibers has been described borrowing some concepts of the cable theory to simulate impulse initiation and saltatory propagation8.

Beside the fundamental mechanisms of neuronal membrane excitability described by the HH model, a number of other biophysical phenomena are associated with neuronal activity1.

Different physical approaches to these processes, which take into account mechanical forces, thermodynamics and electromagnetism, drew growing interest from researchers and may provide further understanding of the mechanisms underlying neuronal signaling and encoding of information2,9.

We focused our attention on the possible electromagnetic (EM) aspects of axonal impulse conduction, which have been investigated so far. Optical propagation of photons through myelinic waveguides has been recently shown to be possible by detailed modeling, and therefore raising the question of what could be the source of such radiation4.

Like any other cellular process, axonal activity involves energy generation and exchange. Since early investigations on neuronal function, measurements during action potential revealed the production of heat10, while infrared radiation transfer between nerve ends, following stimulation, has been experimentally detected11.

Beyond these reports, many researchers have been considering a possible role of EM radiation, either of the infrared or visible spectrum, in neural excitability and signaling, resulting in theoretical work on what has been referred to as an electromagnetic theory of neural communication2.

Actually, the existence and transport of infrared and visible light have been recently demonstrated in different tissues and even in nerves3,12,13.

Next to the studies on the existence of photon emissions as possible carriers of cellular information, different hypotheses of EM propagation through membranes or axonal structures have been advanced14, until recently, when a comprehensive model described the possible propagation of EM waves through optical communication pathways in the axon4. Alongside a growing interest in the interaction between EM radiations and biological tissues for its diagnostic and therapeutic implications, some evidence of axonal response to infrared and visible light has been observed, adding a further step towards an EM interpretation of neuronal signaling15.

(more at: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-017-18866-x )


Last edited by Cr6 on Thu Sep 20, 2018 10:08 pm; edited 1 time in total

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Re: The human eye can see 'invisible' infrared light

Post by Cr6 on Thu Sep 20, 2018 9:52 pm

Also this is a good summary article:
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https://emmind.net/endogenous_fields-mind-ebp-biophotons_bokkon_theory_vision.html

Biophotons Bókkon's Theory of Vision
Photons are also internally generated to form biophysical pictures during visual imagery

It is possible that visual perception is based upon biophotonic representations of reality inside the brain. Various findings on exogenously applied light and endogenously generated biophotons make the basis for the theory, the visual sensation of light (phosphenes) is likely to be due to the inherent perception of ultraweak photon emissions of cells in the visual system.

In Bókkon's words the theory can summarized as follows:

" The retina absorbs external photons during vision, and then transforms photon signals into electrical signals that are carried to the V1. ... "

(Moreover, it has been demonstrated that biophotons can be guided along the neural fibers. Latest experiments have provide evidence that the glutamate-induced biophotonic activities reflect biophotonic transmission along the axons and in neural circuits, by which may be a new mechanism for the processing of neural information. Since regulated electrical signals of neurons can be converted into regulated biophoton signals, external photonic representation can emerge not only as electrical signals but also as regulated biophoton signals in the brain).

" ... Then, V1 retinotopic electrical signals (spike-related electrical signals along classical axonal-dendritic pathways) can be converted into regulated biophotons within retinotopic neurons that make it possible to create internal biophysical pictures (intrinsic re-representation of perceived external objects) during visual perception and imagery. Therefore, information in the brain appears not only as electrical (chemical) signal but also as a controlled biophoton signal of synchronized V1 neurons." [15]

For the developers of the theory the detailed and realistic visual representation in early V1 and V2 areas cannot be guaranteed by mere electrical representations. However, the biophysical picture concept may guarantee the detailed and realistic visual representation of objects in retinotopic V1 and V2 areas by congruent patterns of regulated biophotons.

There exists some findings that underpin some aspects of the theory and some of them with surprising results, a theoretical work [1] related to the retinal discrete dark noise effect demonstrated that thermal activation approach is mathematically incongruent and but that the discrete components of noise are indistinguishable in shape and duration from those produced by real photon induced photo-isomerization, so it's proposed that the retinal discrete dark noise is most likely due to "photons" inside cells instead "heat" for thermal activation of visual pigments..

It must be said in that sense that now exist experimental evidence of biophotonic activity in the retina [2]:

" Here, we used a novel ultra-weak biophoton imaging system (UBIS) to detect biophotonic activity (emission) under dark conditions in rat and bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) retinas in vitro. We found a significant temperature-dependent increase in biophotonic activity that was completely blocked either by removing intracellular and extracellular Ca2+ together or inhibiting phosphodiesterase 6. These findings suggest that the photon-like component of discrete dark noise may not be caused by a direct contribution of the thermal activation of rhodopsin, but rather by an indirect thermal induction of biophotonic activity, which then activates the retinal chromophore of rhodopsin. Therefore, this study suggests a possible solution regarding the thermal activation energy barrier for discrete dark noise, which has been debated for almost half a century."

But this not invalidate that a visual representation made by biphotons or ultraweak photon emissions (UPE) is also taking place with neurons of the V1 and V2 areas as a source.

A very curious phenomena is detected in [16]; they design an experiment based in the premise that in visual projection a physical electromagnetic component is present so they put or not put mirrors in front of subject of the test (which is unaware of those changes) affecting the subject's perception of his mental projection as it is doubled or distorted when mirror is put:

" As the results of both the experiments have showed, when the mental image was projected on the mutually reflective mirrors, a duplication or a multiplication of the subjective perception like mental image appeared. This phenomenon did not appear sending the image toward the two not reflecting panels. The mental image projected on the mirrors would act in a similar way to a light beam generating an optical reflection phenomenon."

Some propositions that the eye itself emit energy of some kind have been done previously, and that this emission is involved in visual perception, or in the creation of "sense of being watched" in the objective has been stipulated [3].

Here it can be pointed out the following experiment [17] where biophotons are also reflected in mirrors, which causes an augmented effect on sender (in this case HepG2 cells).

In [9] photons (biophotons) are detected from subject imagining white light:

" The quantitative convergence of the energies associated with photon emission, change in cerebral power, and the minute decrease in the local adjacent geomagnetic field in the same plane as the photon emission, suggests that experience of an “inner light” may reflect actual photon production whose energies are shared with changes in the proximal intensity of the geomagnetic field in the plane associated with photon emission."

While in [18] is suggested that LSD-induced visual hallucinations can be due to transient enhancement of bioluminescent photons in the early retinotopic visual system; LSD can generate biophotons when is metabolized by peroxidase so, for the authors, the visual hallucinogenic effect may be due that there are several sources of biophotons producing mechanisms in the brain in parallel, especially in the early visual system.

Very related to this in [11] hallucinogens are proposed to exert effect via a biophysical interference, but in this case because their intrinsic fluorescence:

" ... of importance in this context, are the strong flurescence properties of the major hallucinogens: LSD, bufetonine, dimethyl-tryptamine, psilocybine, psilocin, iboguanin, harmine, cannabidinol and mescaline. Furthermore it has been shown that hallucinogenic properties of these substances have a direct correlation to their fluorescence properties and their readyness to donate electrons. As hypothesis we propose that the fluorescence interacts physically with the proposed Biophoton mediated cell to cell communication thus producing hallucinations."

In [19] authors summarize some luminescence-dependent phenomena in the eye, so they review the profs available for understanding discrete dark noise as ultraweak photon emission produced by lipid peroxidation of rods, retinal phosphenes as ultraweak photon emission generated from excess free radicals and negative afterimage as a result of delayed luminescence in the eye, among them.

In this compendium [13] of various aspects of the theory, made by Bókkon himself, there are mentioned various other facts that can support the theory. Also several proposals are reviewed of how this kind of visual representations can work in other situations apart of representations of the external world, for example: as a biophysical picture during visual imagery or also as the human memory (unconscious) that can operate through intrinsic dynamic pictures and then link these picture-representations to each other during language learning processes.

Apart from the endogenously generated photons, which it is undoubtedly the area of study for this theory, maybe is interesting to note how exogenously generated photons affects the brain when is exposed to them because its sensitivity may be indicative that there are endogenous photonic pathways working in normal brain functioning. To get started with this it must be taken into account that humans can detect a single-photon, at least when incident on the cornea [4], as demonstrated in an experiment that shows that the probability of reporting a single photon is modulated by the presence of an earlier photon.

Also there are interesting experiments that demonstrate that applying temporally patterned light over skull (without eyes intervention) resulted in suppression of gamma activity within the right cuneus (including the extrastriate area), beta activity within the left angular and right superior temporal regions, and alpha power within the right parahippocampal region [5] and as mentioned in the paper, that photons can traverse the skull and influence biochemical and biophysical functions within brain space has been known or suspected by many previous researchers. In [6] it is shown that transcranial light affects plasma monoamine levels and expression of brain encephalitic pain in mouse.

Extraocular light, but in this case directed trough ear canals, is also used in various experiments. In [7] extraocular light delivered via ear canals abolished normal emotional modulation of attention related brain responses. In [8] is showed that transcranial bright light treatment may have antidepressant and anxiolytic effect in seasonal affective disorder patients.

There are also some ideas (that with some experimental evidences are all compiled in a section [10]) that also can be take in consideration, like as mentioned previously, the discovery that biophotons can be conducted along neural fibers [12]:

" ... the detected biophotonic activities in the corpus callosum and thalamus in sagittal brain slices mostly originate from axons or axonal terminals of cortical projection neurons, and that the hyperphosphorylation of microtubule-associated protein tau leads to a significant decrease of biophotonic activities in these two areas. Furthermore, the application of glutamate in the hippocampal dentate gyrus results in increased biophotonic activities in its intrahippocampal projection areas. These results suggest that the glutamate-induced biophotonic activities reflect biophotonic transmission along the axons and in neural circuits, which may be a new mechanism for the processing of neural information."

The relationship between an electromagnetic theory of mind and this biophysical representation is that this representation, being made by biophotons, can be part of the consciousness itself forming a layer of a multilayered (or multifrequency) electromagnetic mind. Other frequencies, as classical low frequencies generated in the brain, can interact with this layer [14].

References:

1. Salari, Vahid, et al. "The Physical Mechanism for Retinal Discrete Dark Noise: Thermal Activation or Cellular Ultraweak Photon Emission?." PloS one 11.3 (2016): e0148336.

2. Li, Zehua, and Jiapei Dai. "Biophotons Contribute to Retinal Dark Noise." Neuroscience bulletin 32.3 (2016): 246-252.

3. Ross, Colin A. "Traditional beliefs and electromagnetic fields." AIBR: Revista de Antropología Iberoamericana 6.3 (2011): 269-286.

4. Tinsley, Jonathan N., et al. "Direct detection of a single photon by humans." Nature Communications 7 (2016).

5. Karbowski, Lukasz M., et al. "LORETA indicates frequency-specific suppressions of current sources within the cerebrums of blindfolded subjects from patterns of blue light flashes applied over the skull." Epilepsy & Behavior 51 (2015): 127-132.

6. Flyktman, Antti, et al. "Transcranial light affects plasma monoamine levels and expression of brain encephalopsin in the mouse." Journal of Experimental Biology 218.10 (2015): 1521-1526.

7. Sun, Lihua, et al. "Human Brain Reacts to Transcranial Extraocular Light." PloS one 11.2 (2016): e0149525.

8. Jurvelin, Heidi, et al. "Transcranial bright light treatment via the ear canals in seasonal affective disorder: a randomized, double-blind dose-response study." BMC psychiatry 14.1 (2014): 1.

9. Saroka, Kevin S., Blake T. Dotta, and Michael A. Persinger. "Concurrent photon emission, changes in quantitative brain activity over the right hemisphere, and alterations in the proximal geomagnetic field while imagining white light." International Journal of Life Science and Medical Research 3.1 (2013): 30.

10. EMMIND › Endogenous Fields & Mind › Endogenous Biophotons › Biophotons, Microtubules & Brain

11. Grass, F. "P03-33-Biophotons, hallucinogens, and fluorescence." European Psychiatry 26 (2011): 1202.

12. Tang, Rendong, and Jiapei Dai. "Spatiotemporal imaging of glutamate-induced biophotonic activities and transmission in neural circuits." PloS one 9.1 (2014): e85643.

13. Bókkon, Istvan. "Explanations step by step about Bókkon's biophysical picture representation model (also called intrinsic biophysical virtual visual reality) during visual perception and imagery." (2013)

14. Bereta, Martin, et al. "Low frequency electromagnetic field effects on ultra-weak photon emission from yeast cells." 2016 ELEKTRO. IEEE, 2016.

15. Bókkon, I., et al. "Estimation of the number of biophotons involved in the visual perception of a single-object image: Biophoton intensity can be considerably higher inside cells than outside." Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology 100.3 (2010): 160-166.

16. Ruggieri, Vezio. "Psycho-Physiological Hypothesis about Visual Mental Images Projection." Academy of Social Science Journal 2.9 (2017).

17. Zamani, M., Etebari, M., & Moradi, S. (2017). The Increment of Genoprotective Effect of Melatonin due to “Autooptic” Effect versus the Genotoxicity of Mitoxantron. Journal of Biomedical Physics and Engineering.

18. Kapócs, Gábor, et al. "Possible role of biochemiluminescent photons for lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)-induced phosphenes and visual hallucinations." Reviews in the Neurosciences 28.1 (2017): 77-86.

19. Salari, Vahid, et al. "Phosphenes, retinal discrete dark noise, negative afterimages and retinogeniculate projections: A new explanatory framework based on endogenous ocular luminescence." Progress in retinal and eye research 60 (2017): 101-119.

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Re: The human eye can see 'invisible' infrared light

Post by Cr6 on Thu Sep 20, 2018 10:17 pm

Interesting that Glutamate is regulated closely by axons/brain cells...probably involved in bio-photon reception:

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Inside the Glutamate Storm

http://www.dana.org/Cerebrum/Default.aspx?id=39382

The amino acid glutamate is the major signaling chemical in nature. All invertebrates (worms, insects, and the like) use glutamate for conveying messages from nerve to muscle. In mammals, glutamate is mainly present in the central nervous system, brain, and spinal cord, where it plays the role of a neuronal messenger, or neurotransmitter. In fact, almost all brain cells use glutamate to exchange messages. Moreover, glutamate can serve as a source of energy for the brain cells when their regular energy supplier, glucose, is lacking. However, when its levels rise too high in the spaces between cells—known as extracellular spaces—glutamate turns its coat to become a toxin that kills neurons.*

As befits a potentially hazardous substance, glutamate is kept safely sealed within the brain cells. A healthy neuron releases glutamate only when it needs to convey a message, then immediately sucks the messenger back inside. Glutamate concentration inside the cells is 10,000 times greater than outside them. If we follow the dam analogy, that would be equivalent to holding 10,000 cubic feet of glutamate behind the dam and letting only a trickle of one cubic foot flow freely outside. A clever pumping mechanism makes sure this trickle never gets out of hand: When a neuron senses the presence of too much glutamate in the vicinity—the extracellular space—it switches on special pumps on its membrane and siphons the maverick glutamate back in.

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Re: The human eye can see 'invisible' infrared light

Post by Cr6 on Thu Sep 20, 2018 10:24 pm

DMT release is likely involved at a limited scale with "imaging" and bio-photons:
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PINEAL DMT: BLINDED BY THE LIGHT
SOMA PINOLINE: BLINDED BY THE LIGHT

Prophets, Procreation, & Parallel Worlds
by Iona Miller, (c)2006 - 2013

The groundbreaking work of Dr. Rick Strassman (2001) focuses on the role natural body chemistry plays in creating spiritual life. He calls DMT the Spirit Molecule; an endogenous hallucinogen, which he boldly asserts, is an active agent in a variety of altered states including mystical experience. To explore his theory, Strassman conducted extensive testing, injecting volunteers with the powerful psychedelic, synthetic DMT (N,N-dimethyltryptamine; N,N-DMT).

DMT is so powerful it is physically immobilizing, and produces a flood of unexpected and overwhelming visual and emotional imagery. Taking it is like an instantaneous LSD peak. DMT crosses the usually impenetrable blood-brain-barrier, suggesting its fundamental role in consciousness. But, concluding his 5-year studies early, Strassman admitted despite their growth potential, there were no viable therapeutic or neurological applications. He does NOT recommend recreational use.

DMT production is stimulated, in the extraordinary conditions of birth, sexual ecstasy, childbirth, extreme physical stress, near-death, and death, as well as meditation. Pineal DMT also plays a significant role in dream consciousness. This chemical messenger links body and spirit. Pineal activation awakens normally latent neural pathways.

"All spiritual disciplines describe quite psychedelic accounts of the transformative experiences, whose attainment motivate their practice. Blinding white light, encounters with demonic and angelic entities, ecstatic emotions, timelessness, heavenly sounds, feelings of having died and being reborn, contacting a powerful and loving presence underlying all of reality--these experiences cut across all denominations. They also are characteristic of a fully psychedelic DMT experience. How might meditation evoke the pineal DMT experience?"

"Meditative techniques using sound, sight, or the mind may generate particular wave patterns whose fields induce resonance in the brain. Millennia of human trial and error have determined that certain "sacred" words, visual images, and mental exercises exert uniquely desired effects. Such effects may occur because of the specific fields they generate within the brain. These fields cause multiple systems to vibrate and pulse at certain frequencies. We can feel our minds and bodies resonate with these spiritual exercises. Of course, the pineal gland also is buzzing at these same frequencies. . .The pineal begins to "vibrate" at frequencies that weaken its multiple barriers to DMT formation: the pineal cellular shield, enzyme levels, and quantities of anti-DMT. The end result is a psychedelic surge of the pineal spirit molecule, resulting in the subjective states of mystical consciousness." (Strassman, 2001).

Natural hallucinogens may belong to the tryptamine or beta-carboline family of compounds. One compound (6-methoxy-1,2,3,4-tetra-hydro-beta-carboline) has been implicated in rapid eye movement sleep (REM). It is concentrated in the retinae of mammals, which may be related to its visual effects.There are several ways in which either psychoactive tryptamines and/or beta-carbolines may be produced within the central nervous system and pineal from precursors and enzymes that are known to exist in human beings. In addition, nerve fibers leave the pineal and make synaptic connections with other brain sites through traditional nerve-to-nerve connections, not just through endocrine secretions.

https://ionamiller2017.weebly.com/pineal-dmt.html

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