# Superluminal B-photons in Stacked Spins ## Superluminal B-photons in Stacked Spins

Given that we accept b-photons have a tangential velocity of c in their end-over-end spins, how do we account for the fact that the b-photon would therefore be travelling at 2c half the time in its second stacked spin and even faster in subsequent outer spins. Nevyn's paper calculates the angular velocity of each spin. They are much slower than c, so I suspect this accounts for it. If I understand correctly, the real velocity of the b-photon does not exceed c as its really an angular velocity, not a tangential velocity. The tangential velocity is just a means to determine the real (angular) velocity. I was hoping someone might correct me or affirm this as I haven't developed a great intuition or complete understanding for the charge field yet.

## Re: Superluminal B-photons in Stacked Spins

You have to look at the amount of time that you are talking about. Half of the cycle will be faster and the other half will be slower by the same amount. Therefore, they average to c. The larger the particle you are looking at, the longer that time interval is because it has a larger top level radius, but they are exceedingly small time frames.

You also have to think about what dimensions the particle is spinning in. You are assuming that they are spinning about an axis that is orthogonal to the linear velocity, but that is unlikely to be the case. I don't have a solid reason for it, but I think the top level spin axis will be inline with the linear velocity, and therefore the motion of that spin level is never in the same line as the linear velocity. Think of the top level spin as rotating around the linear velocity vector, so the motion of the particle is actually a spiral around that vector.

However, lower level spins will still be in the linear velocity dimension, so it doesn't completely remove it. Which also shows that lower level spins can reduce that number from c, maybe also boost it above, but the time frames are exceedingly small.

Don't get too attached to c as a number. It is an average and individual photons can be above and below that average.

When someone says that a photon travels at c, they are talking about its linear velocity, not its spin. A tangential velocity is no less real than an angular velocity. They are just 2 ways to look at the same thing. If anything, the tangential velocity is more real because it is used in a collision. The angular velocity would need to be converted into a tangential velocity to use it in a collision calculation. It is the tangential velocity that will be imparted to the other particle, hence why photons are emitted, or pushed away, at c and that velocity is its linear velocity, not angular or tangential. So the initial force was supplied by a spin but the resultant velocity is linear.

At the end of the day, we don't have a great answer to this, but it is possible to see why our machines do not currently measure this difference. Nevyn

Posts : 1796
Join date : 2014-09-11
Location : Australia ## Re: Superluminal B-photons in Stacked Spins

Nevyn wrote:Half of the cycle will be faster and the other half will be slower by the same amount.
So an instance of a b-photon exceeding c is not forbidden in the special relativity sense. The c-limit is just a general observation. Thanks for the clarification.

Nevyn wrote:You are assuming that they are spinning about an axis that is orthogonal to the linear velocity, but that is unlikely to be the case.
It does makes more sense as it resembles a sine wave as opposed to a point on a wheel/jagged motion.

I also assumed b-photons always travelled at c no matter what (albeit constricted within spins), however Mathis' paper on red shift seems to suppose that the angular speed of a spin can exist on a continuum. This is problematic to me as it would mean protons and their mass/charge characteristics would exist on a continuum.

## Re: Superluminal B-photons in Stacked Spins

Special Relativity forbids a measurement over c, but even within that context, c is a variable and we give it a value based on experiments. Any experiment uses devices and those devices have precision and accuracy, and that is where the fuzziness of c comes into it.

While the top spin level of a particle can slow down from c, I'm not sure that will change the idea of a proton all that much. Mainly because if it slows down too much, the particle will stop acting like a proton and start looking like something else. Even within the range that it still operates as a proton, it will just give a variance to some characteristics. It might look slightly less charged. It might look slightly smaller because its charge field is weaker. At some point I imagine that the spin level collapses and is lost. Unfortunately we can only speculate. Nevyn

Posts : 1796
Join date : 2014-09-11
Location : Australia ## Re: Superluminal B-photons in Stacked Spins 