Cryogenic Electrtons Emitted in Bursts

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Cryogenic Electrtons Emitted in Bursts

Post by LloydK on Tue Jan 13, 2015 10:40 pm

Re: The VRIL Channel
Postby upriver » Sun Jan 11, 2015 12:57 am
The work by HO Meyer on cryogenic PMTs I believe is detection of these black waves coming down from above the earth.

Dark Rate of a Photomultiplier at Cryogenic Temperatures

Cryogenic electron emission phenomenon has no known physics explanation
“Cryogenic emission is a physics phenomenon that defies an explanation,” Meyer told “The physics responsible for it may or may not be fundamental, only the future will tell. Photomultipliers happen to offer the environment in which the phenomenon may be observed, but I doubt if my work will be of great significance to the users of photomultipliers.”

In his experiments, Meyer placed a photomultiplier inside an empty container, which he then submerged in liquid nitrogen or helium. Using radiation cooling, he cooled the photomultiplier to a temperature of 80 K (-193° C) after about one day, and to 4 K (-269° C) in another day. With this setup, he could detect cryogenic dark events, which are shown to be caused by single electrons emitted from the cathode of the photomultiplier.

As previous research has shown, starting from room temperature, the dark rate decreases as temperature decreases, but only up to a point. Below about 220 K (-53° C), the dark rate levels off. With further cooling, it begins to rise, and continues to increase at least down to 4 K (-269° C), the lowest temperature for which Meyer has data. Most of Meyer’s experiments were performed at around 80 K (-193° C).

In his experiments, Meyer found that electrons are emitted in “bursts” - numerous electron firings that occur close together in time. Although these bursts occur randomly, they last for different lengths of time, with their duration distribution following a power law. Further, Meyer found that the individual firing events within a burst are highly correlated. Specifically, within a burst, events first occur rapidly, and then less and less frequently as the burst “fades away.”

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